Pali Term: Upādāna

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Pali Term: Upādāna

Postby Dmytro » Wed Sep 08, 2010 5:27 am

Hello Pali friends,

The term 'upaadaana' has two etymologically distinct meanings.

One of them is connected with the verb "upadahati" and with the term "upadhi". "Upadahati" means "causes, generates". For example, "Upaadaa ruupaa" means the qualities derived from "ruupa", i.e. colour, form, taste, eye, ear, nose, etc.

Monier-Williams dictionary gives the corresponding meaning of "upaadaana" as "cause, motive, material cause". In this sense this word is used in Kutuuhalasaalaa sutta. In the passage given below the fuel is "material cause" for burning of the fire, while the wind is "material cause" for blowing out the fire:

SN 4.399. Kutuuhalasaalaa-sutta.m

“Ala~nhi te, vaccha, ka’nkhitu.m, ala.m vicikicchitu.m. Ka’nkhaniiye ca pana te .thaane vicikicchaa uppannaa. Sa-upaadaanassa khvaaha.m, vaccha, upapatti.m pa~n~naapemi no anupaadaanassa. Seyyathaapi, vaccha, aggi sa-upaadaano jalati, no anupaadaano; evameva khvaaha.m, vaccha, sa-upaadaanassa upapatti.m pa~n~naapemi, no anupaadaanassaa”ti.

“Yasmi.m, bho gotama, samaye acci vaatena khittaa duurampi gacchati, imassa pana bhava.m gotamo ki.m upaadaanasmi.m pa~n~naapetii”ti? “Yasmi.m kho, vaccha, samaye acci vaatena khittaa duurampi gacchati, tamaha.m vaatuupaadaana.m pa~n~naapemi. Vaato hissa, vaccha, tasmi.m samaye upaadaana.m hotii”ti. “Yasmi~nca pana, bho gotama, samaye ima~nca kaaya.m nikkhipati, satto ca a~n~natara.m kaaya.m anupapanno hoti, imassa pana bhava.m gotamo ki.m upaadaanasmi.m pa~n~naapetii”ti? “Yasmi.m kho, vaccha, samaye ima~nca kaaya.m nikkhipati, satto ca a~n~natara.m kaaya.m anupapanno hoti, tamaha.m ta.nhuupaadaana.m vadaami. Ta.nhaa hissa, vaccha, tasmi.m samaye upaadaana.m hotii”ti .


Another meaning of 'upaadaana' is etymologically linked with the verb "upaadiyati" (takes, appropriates).

Monier-Williams dictionary gives corresponding meaning: "the act of taking for one's self, appropriating to one's self", which is essentially identification.

SN 3.15, Upaadaaparitassanaa-sutta

“Katha~nca, bhikkhave, upaadaaparitassanaa hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, assutavaa puthujjano ariyaana.m adassaavii ariyadhammassa akovido ariyadhamme aviniito, sappurisaana.m adassaavii sappurisadhammassa akovido sappurisadhamme aviniito ruupa.m attato samanupassati, ruupavanta.m vaa attaana.m; attani vaa ruupa.m, ruupasmi.m vaa attaana.m. Tassa ta.m ruupa.m vipari.namati a~n~nathaa hoti. Tassa ruupa vipari.naama~n~nathaabhaavaa ruupavipari.naamaanuparivatti vi~n~naa.na.m hoti. Tassa ruupavipari.naamaanuparivattijaa paritassanaa dhammasamuppaadaa citta.m pariyaadaaya ti.t.thanti. Cetaso pariyaadaanaa uttaasavaa ca hoti vighaatavaa ca apekkhavaa ca upaadaaya ca paritassati.

This meaning is used in Upaadaaniya sutta, where it is explained as desire and passion for five aggregates:

SN 3.167. Upaadaaniya-sutta.m

“upaadaaniye ca, bhikkhave, dhamme desessaami upaadaana~nca. ta.m su.naatha. katame ca, bhikkhave, upaadaaniyaa dhammaa, katama.m upaadaana.m? ruupa.m, bhikkhave, upaadaaniyo dhammo, yo tattha chandaraago, ta.m tattha upaadaana.m. vedanaa …pe… sa~n~naa… sa’nkhaaraa… vi~n~naa.na.m upaadaaniyo dhammo; yo tattha chandaraago, ta.m tattha upaadaana.m. ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, upaadaaniyaa dhammaa, ida.m upaadaanan”ti.

Similar explanation is given regarding six sense spheres:

SN 4.89. Upaadaaniya-sutta.m

“Upaadaaniye ca, bhikkhave, dhamme desessaami upaadaana~nca. ta.m su.naatha. katame ca, bhikkhave, upaadaaniyaa dhammaa, katama~nca upaadaana.m? cakkhu.m, bhikkhave, upaadaaniyo dhammo. yo tattha chandaraago, ta.m tattha upaadaana.m …pe… jivhaa upaadaaniyo dhammo …pe… mano upaadaaniyo dhammo. yo tattha chandaraago, ta.m tattha upaadaana.m. ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, upaadaaniyaa dhammaa, ida.m upaadaanan”ti.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/su ... 2-121.html

SN 4.108

“Upaadaaniye ca, bhikkhave, dhamme desessaami upaadaana~nca. Ta.m su.naatha. Katame ca, bhikkhave, upaadaaniyaa dhammaa, katama~nca upaadaana.m? Santi, bhikkhave, cakkhuvi~n~neyyaa ruupaa i.t.thaa kantaa manaapaa piyaruupaa kaamuupasa.mhitaa rajaniiyaa. Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, upaadaaniyaa dhammaa. Yo tattha chandaraago, ta.m tattha upaadaana.m …pe… santi, bhikkhave, jivhaavi~n~neyyaa rasaa …pe… santi, bhikkhave, manovi~n~neyyaa dhammaa i.t.thaa kantaa manaapaa piyaruupaa kaamuupasa.mhitaa rajaniiyaa. Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, upaadaaniyaa dhammaa. Yo tattha chandaraago ta.m tattha upaadaanan”ti.

The explanation of this term as desire is also given in Hemavata sutta (Snp 30):

172. “Katama.m ta.m upaadaana.m, yattha loko viha~n~nati;
niyyaana.m pucchito bruuhi, katha.m dukkhaa pamuccati”.
173. “Pa~nca kaamagu.naa loke, manocha.t.thaa paveditaa;
ettha chanda.m viraajetvaa, eva.m dukkhaa pamuccati.


Hence the translations "clinging", "grasping" are quite acceptable, though they lose the implied meaning of identification with the five aggregates, conception of the self.
Buddhist model of conditioned arising is intended for practical solutions. In this case the solution is the disidentification through seeing selflessness, impersonality (anatta).

SN 3.15, Upaadaaparitassanaa-sutta

“Katha~nca, bhikkhave, anupaadaa-aparitassanaa hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, sutavaa ariyasaavako ariyaana.m dassaavii ariyadhammassa kovido ariyadhamme suviniito, sappurisaana.m dassaavii sappurisadhammassa kovido sappurisadhamme suviniito na ruupa.m attato samanupassati, na ruupavanta.m vaa attaana.m; na attani vaa ruupa.m, na ruupasmi.m vaa attaana.m. Tassa ta.m ruupa.m vipari.namati a~n~nathaa hoti. Tassa ruupavipari.naama~n~nathaabhaavaa na ruupavipari.naamaanuparivatti vi~n~naa.na.m hoti. Tassa na ruupavipari.naamaanuparivattijaa paritassanaa dhammasamuppaadaa citta.m pariyaadaaya ti.t.thanti. Cetaso apariyaadaanaa na cevuttaasavaa hoti na ca vighaatavaa na ca apekkhavaa, anupaadaaya ca na paritassati.


Another aspect of this identification is given in Vesali sutta (SN 4.109) which talks about the grounding of consciousness on the six kinds of pleasing things:

“Santi ca kho, gahapati, cakkhuvi~n~neyyaa ruupaa, i.t.thaa kantaa manaapaa piyaruupaa kaamuupasa.mhitaa rajaniiyaa. Ta~nce bhikkhu naabhinandati naabhivadati naajjhosaaya ti.t.thati. Tassa ta.m anabhinandato anabhivadato anajjhosaaya ti.t.thato na tannissita.m vi~n~naa.na.m hoti, na tadupaadaana.m. Anupaadaano, gahapati, bhikkhu parinibbaayati …pe… santi kho, gahapati, jivhaavi~n~neyyaa rasaa …pe… santi kho, gahapati, manovi~n~neyyaa dhammaa i.t.thaa kantaa manaapaa piyaruupaa kaamuupasa.mhitaa rajaniiyaa. Ta~nce bhikkhu naabhinandati naabhivadati naajjhosaaya ti.t.thati, tassa ta.m anabhinandato anabhivadato anajjhosaaya ti.t.thato. Na tannissita.m vi~n~naa.na.m hoti, na tadupaadaana.m. Anupaadaano, gahapati, bhikkhu parinibbaayati. Aya.m kho, gahapati, hetu aya.m paccayo yena midhekacce sattaa di.t.theva dhamme parinibbaayantii”ti.

Four kinds of upaadaana are listed (MN 1.50):

Katama.m panaavuso, upaadaana.m, katamo upaadaanasamudayo, katamo upaadaananirodho, katamaa upaadaananirodhagaaminii pa.tipadaa? Cattaarimaani, aavuso, upaadaanaani– kaamupaadaana.m, di.t.thupaadaana.m, siilabbatupaadaana.m, attavaadupaadaana.m. Ta.nhaasamudayaa upaadaanasamudayo, ta.nhaanirodhaa upaadaananirodho, ayameva ariyo a.t.tha’ngiko maggo upaadaananirodhagaaminii pa.tipadaa, seyyathida.m– sammaadi.t.thi …pe… sammaasamaadhi.


These two meanings interplay in the texts, and the identification-appropriation is simultaneously a material cause for becoming (bhava) in conditioned arising.

Metta,

Dmytro

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Re: Pali Term: Upādāna

Postby Dmytro » Wed Sep 08, 2010 5:29 am

See also the article:

The Buddhistic technical terms upadana and upadisesa.

By ARTHUR ONCKEN LOVEJOY, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
Journal of the American Oriental Society, George F. Moore ed.
vol. 19, pp 126-136

http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/love.htm

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Re: Pali Term: Upādāna

Postby Dmytro » Tue Apr 24, 2012 4:57 am

Atthakatha explains this term as "gahaṇa" - "acquisition".

Saupādānoti sagahaṇo.

Gahaṇaṭṭhena upādānaṃ.

Tadupādānanti taṃ gahaṇaṭṭhena upādānaṃ.

Upādānānīti ādānaggahaṇāni.

Catūhi upādānehīti kāmupādānādīhi catūhi bhusaṃ gahaṇehi.


And the second meaning indicated is 'paccaya' - condition.

Anupādāparinibbānatthaṃ kho, āvusoti ettha anupādāparinibbānaṃ nāma appaccayaparinibbānaṃ. Dvedhā upādānāni gahaṇūpādānañca paccayūpādānañca. Gahaṇūpādānaṃ nāma kāmupādānādikaṃ catubbidhaṃ, paccayūpādānaṃ nāma avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārāti evaṃ vuttapaccayā. Tattha gahaṇūpādānavādino ācariyā anupādāparinibbānanti catūsu upādānesu aññatarenāpi kañci dhammaṃ aggahetvā pavattaṃ arahattaphalaṃ anupādāparinibbānanti kathenti. Tañhi na ca upādānasampayuttaṃ hutvā kañci dhammaṃ upādiyati, kilesānañca parinibbutante jātattā parinibbānanti vuccati. Paccayūpādānavādino pana anupādāparinibbānanti appaccayaparinibbānaṃ. Paccayavasena anuppannaṃ asaṅkhataṃ amatadhātumeva anupādāparinibbānanti kathenti. Ayaṃ anto, ayaṃ koṭi, ayaṃ niṭṭhā. Appaccayaparinibbānaṃ pattassa hi brahmacariyavāso matthakaṃ patto nāma hoti, tasmā thero ‘‘anupādāparinibbānattha’’nti āha. Atha naṃ anuyuñjanto āyasmā sāriputto ‘‘kiṃ nu kho, āvuso, sīlavisuddhi anupādāparinibbāna’’nti puna pucchaṃ ārabhi.
Last edited by Dmytro on Tue Apr 24, 2012 5:01 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Pali Term: Upādāna

Postby tiltbillings » Tue Apr 24, 2012 5:01 am

Dmytro wrote:Atthakatha explains this term as "gahaṇa" - "acquisition".

Saupādānoti sagahaṇo.

Gahaṇaṭṭhena upādānaṃ.

Tadupādānanti taṃ gahaṇaṭṭhena upādānaṃ.

Upādānānīti ādānaggahaṇāni.

Anupādāparinibbānatthaṃ kho, āvusoti ettha anupādāparinibbānaṃ nāma appaccayaparinibbānaṃ. Dvedhā upādānāni gahaṇūpādānañca paccayūpādānañca. Gahaṇūpādānaṃ nāma kāmupādānādikaṃ catubbidhaṃ, paccayūpādānaṃ nāma avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārāti evaṃ vuttapaccayā. Tattha gahaṇūpādānavādino ācariyā anupādāparinibbānanti catūsu upādānesu aññatarenāpi kañci dhammaṃ aggahetvā pavattaṃ arahattaphalaṃ anupādāparinibbānanti kathenti. Tañhi na ca upādānasampayuttaṃ hutvā kañci dhammaṃ upādiyati, kilesānañca parinibbutante jātattā parinibbānanti vuccati. Paccayūpādānavādino pana anupādāparinibbānanti appaccayaparinibbānaṃ. Paccayavasena anuppannaṃ asaṅkhataṃ amatadhātumeva anupādāparinibbānanti kathenti. Ayaṃ anto, ayaṃ koṭi, ayaṃ niṭṭhā. Appaccayaparinibbānaṃ pattassa hi brahmacariyavāso matthakaṃ patto nāma hoti, tasmā thero ‘‘anupādāparinibbānattha’’nti āha. Atha naṃ anuyuñjanto āyasmā sāriputto ‘‘kiṃ nu kho, āvuso, sīlavisuddhi anupādāparinibbāna’’nti puna pucchaṃ ārabhi.

Catūhi upādānehīti kāmupādānādīhi catūhi bhusaṃ gahaṇehi
And for those of us who cannot read commenttarial Pali (or any Pali), a translation would be a very nice thing, indeed. (Otherwise, what is the point?)
This being is bound to samsara, kamma is his means for going beyond. -- SN I, 38.

“Of course it is happening inside your head, Harry, but why on earth should that mean that it is not real?” HPatDH p.723

      >> Do you see a man wise [enlightened/ariya] in his own eyes? There is more hope for a fool than for him.<<
      -- Proverbs 26:12

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Re: Pali Term: Upādāna

Postby Dmytro » Tue Apr 24, 2012 5:05 am

Sorry, commentarial Pali is notoriously difficult to translate. Pali-English dictionaries don't include some of the words from commentarial Pali.

So I hope these quotes are OK on a Pali forum. Or am I the only one here who is familiar with Pali?

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Re: Pali Term: Upādāna

Postby retrofuturist » Tue Apr 24, 2012 5:08 am

Greetings,

I bet this is a cracking sentence, I like the look of it...
Paccayavasena anuppannaṃ asaṅkhataṃ amatadhātumeva anupādāparinibbānanti kathenti.

Anyone know exactly what this means?

Metta,
Retro. :)
"Do not force others, including children, by any means whatsoever, to adopt your views, whether by authority, threat, money, propaganda, or even education." - Ven. Thich Nhat Hanh

"The uprooting of identity is seen by the noble ones as pleasurable; but this contradicts what the whole world sees." (Snp 3.12)

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Re: Pali Term: Upādāna

Postby tiltbillings » Tue Apr 24, 2012 5:11 am

Dmytro wrote:Sorry, commentarial Pali is notoriously difficult to translate. Pali-English dictionaries don't include some of the words from commentarial Pali.

So I hope these quotes are OK on a Pali forum.
It might be of interest to those of us who do not know Pali, but if a translation is not possible, then do what you need to do.

Or am I the only one here who is familiar with Pali?
Pretty much. Such as Kare, there a very, very small number here that are at home with it.
This being is bound to samsara, kamma is his means for going beyond. -- SN I, 38.

“Of course it is happening inside your head, Harry, but why on earth should that mean that it is not real?” HPatDH p.723

      >> Do you see a man wise [enlightened/ariya] in his own eyes? There is more hope for a fool than for him.<<
      -- Proverbs 26:12

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Re: Pali Term: Upādāna

Postby Dmytro » Tue Apr 24, 2012 10:10 am

Greetings Retro,

retrofuturist wrote:I bet this is a cracking sentence, I like the look of it...
Paccayavasena anuppannaṃ asaṅkhataṃ amatadhātumeva anupādāparinibbānanti kathenti.

Anyone know exactly what this means?


AFAIK:
"Due to [the meaning of upādāna as] condition (paccaya) the unborn, unfabricated, deathless element is called unconditioned (an-upādā) Parinibbana."

Metta,

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Re: Pali Term: Upādāna

Postby retrofuturist » Tue Apr 24, 2012 10:43 am

Greetings,

Thanks Dmytro. I recognised a lot of the words but had no idea on the grammatical structure.

Metta,
Retro. :)
"Do not force others, including children, by any means whatsoever, to adopt your views, whether by authority, threat, money, propaganda, or even education." - Ven. Thich Nhat Hanh

"The uprooting of identity is seen by the noble ones as pleasurable; but this contradicts what the whole world sees." (Snp 3.12)

"You've got to focus on what's really worthwhile in life, which means resisting a lot of the currents in our culture" (Thanissaro)

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Re: Pali Term: Upādāna

Postby Dmytro » Wed Feb 13, 2013 11:01 am

From other dictionaries:

Source: Jeffrey Hopkins' Tibetan-Sanskrit-English Dictionary

nyer len gyi phung po
upādāna-skandha
appropriated aggregates

nyer len
upādāna
substantial cause; object appropriated; appropriated; appropriation

nye bar blang bya
upādāna
that which is appropriated

Source: Sanskrit-English Dictionary, by M. Monier Williams

upâ-dāna n. the act of taking for one's self, appropriating to one's self MBh. Mn. &c
• perceiving, noticing, learning, acquiring (knowledge) Hit. Vop
• accepting, allowing, including
• employment, use Sāh. Sarvad. Kap
• saying, speaking, mentioning, enumeration Vedāntas. Kāś. Siddh
• abstraction, withdrawing (the organs of sense from the outer world) L
• (with Buddh.) grasping at or clinging to existence (caused by tṛṣṇā, desire, and causing bhava, new births)
• (with Rāmānujas) preparation (of perfumes, flowers &c. as one of the five elements of worship) Sarvad
• cause, motive, material cause
• material of any kind Sāṃkhyak. Vedāntas. Kap. &c
• offering, present L

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Re: Pali Term: Upādāna

Postby Dmytro » Thu Apr 13, 2017 5:58 pm

Sunyo wrote:

Hi Pali people,

Upadana literally means 'taking up', but the default translation has become 'clinging'. I think 'clinging' does not reflect the meaning very well, though, and think 'taking up' is much more accurate. Another translation being used is 'grasping', which may be a bit closer to 'taking up', but it still represents another idea than what I think upadana is really about.

Here's some examples of upadana and the verb upadiyati in "ordinary speech" first:

● AN1.315, mentions a seed that takes up nutrition from the soil.
● AN11.13, mentions abandoning bad qualities and not taking them back up, just as a pot turned upside down spills its water and does not take it back.
● MN74, says abandoning views, not taking up another.
● MN144 and SN35.87: laying down this body, not taking up another.
● anukampaṃ upādāyā: out of compassion, (lit having taken up compassion).
● mahābhūtānaṃ upādāya rūpaṃ: matter (=rupa) taken (up) from the four elements.


A quick search with the search engine showed there are quite a few more examples like this, at least with the gerund upadaya. A funny one is:

S.I.112: Tena kho pana samayena bhagavā pañcannaṃ upādānakkhandhānaṃ upādāya bhikkhūnaṃ dhammiyā kathāya sandasseti. - "At that time the Bhagava, having taken up the upadana-khandhas, was instructing the bhikkhus with a dhamma talk."

which could be read as the Buddha being quite unenlightened, but it means he took them as the subject for the talk.

Anyway, in all the above 'clinging' and 'grasping' do not work at all and 'taking up' is a more logical choice. So why should we not use it in the deeper contexts? Of course, something can have a different meaning in a different context, but with reference to the five aggregates and in context of anatta and liberation, SN22.79 is quite clear when it says: "a noble disciple who gets rid of things and does not accumulate them, who abandons things and does not take them up, who scatters things and does not amass them...". Accumulating and amassing are synonyms for taking things up, not for clinging. Moreover, this speaks about the sekha, and to say that a sekha does not cling or grasp sounds like he/she is already enlightened (as it does in Bhikkhu Bodhi's translation for example). Instead the sekha is not taking up more things as a self and is abandoning them instead.

That sutta and others are about taking things to be one's self. In the more common context of dependent arising, I understand upadana to mean taking up the aggregates by seeing them as "mine", which then causes a next life (bhava). So this is basically the "taking up a new body" that I mentioned before. Now, SN12.61 says: "the body is seen taken and laid aside", which is one indication that taking (adana) and taking up (upadana) are basically just synonyms.

Some more examples that support this (there may well be more):

● SN22.22: "And what is taking the burden? It is that craving which leads to punabbhava (rebirth)." The connection between craving, taking (adana) and bhava in this sutta, and craving, taking up (upadana) and bhava in the default sequence of dependent arising is clear and direct.
● IT15 has something very similar when it says in verse "free from craving, not taking things" one does not get reborn.
● SN 45.35, also in verse: Ādānapaṭinissagge, anupādāya ye ratā; "not taking up, they delight in letting go of taking."
● SN12.66: "When there is craving, acquisition comes to be." Here acquisition basically takes the place of upadana.


'Acquisition' is yet another clear synonym for upadana, which makes altogether four: accumulating, amassing, taking, and acquiring. Antonyms I've mentioned are abandoning, laying down, scattering, getting rid of.

This all also makes much more sense when considering the connection between craving and upadana in dependent arising from a practical point of view. You don't crave things and then cling to them only after, you crave them and then you go and get them, you take them up. So it is not clinging to, but actually taking things that causes rebirth.

Of course upadana means 'fuel' as well. Now, I know some think that in Indian philosophy a fire clings to its fuel or a plant clings to its fuel (eg AN1.315, SN 12.60) but this makes no sense to me. A fire taking up (using up) its fuel, or a plant taking up its fuel (nutrient) from the ground is much more sensible. (Compare English 'uptake': "absorption, especially of food or nutrient by an organism" - source: wiktionary)

Summary: Clinging is a bad translation for upadanaUpadana is not holding on, it is taking up. This is clear from both many ordinary and technical contexts, also from the antonyms and synonyms used, and from a practical perspective.

What do you think? Should we let go of 'clinging'? Any comments or corrections I'll appreciate, especially any references where the meaning 'clinging' or 'grasping' for upadana is undeniable, because I could not think of any myself.

Also, the four types of upadana sometimes mentioned (eg. SN 12.2) I have not yet looked at much. Any suggestions regarding these in connection with 'taking up' would be great.

With kindness,

Sunyo


https://discourse.suttacentral.net/t/up ... nging/4158


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