Right way to cultivate samma sankappa?

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reflection
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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Intention?

Post by reflection » Tue Jul 24, 2012 5:19 pm

That's a great practice as well. If that works for you, great. Just so you know there are multiple approaches. I tend to use MN20 a lot personally.

Also, you might be interested in this topic, which shows how it's very likely that the mundana and supramundane things are later additions to the sutta.
http://www.dhammawheel.com/viewtopic.php?f=29&t=3881" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Metta!

starter
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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Intention?

Post by starter » Sat Jul 28, 2012 4:25 pm

Hi reflection and other friends,

Thanks for your helpful input. I've just found soem other relevant suttas and Dhammapada verses:

MN 9:

"When, friends, a noble disciple understands craving, the origin of craving, the cessation of craving, and the way leading to the cessation of craving, in that way he is one of right view... and has arrived at this true Dhamma.

38. "And what is craving, what is the origin of craving, what is the cessation of craving, what is the way leading to the cessation of craving? There are these six classes of craving: craving for forms, craving for sounds, craving for odors, craving for flavors, craving for tangibles, craving for mind-objects. With the arising of feeling there is the arising of craving. With the cessation of feeling there is the cessation of craving. The way leading to the cessation of craving is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view... right concentration.

39. "When a noble disciple has thus understood craving, the origin of craving, the cessation of craving, and the way leading to the cessation of craving... he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view... and has arrived at this true Dhamma."


SN 27.8: Tanha Sutta — Craving

At Savatthi. "Monks, any desire-passion with regard to craving for forms is a defilement of the mind. Any desire-passion with regard to craving for sounds... craving for aromas... craving for flavors... craving for tactile sensations... craving for mental objects is a defilement of the mind. When, with regard to these six bases, the defilements of awareness are abandoned, then the mind is inclined to renunciation. The mind fostered by renunciation feels malleable for the direct knowing of those qualities worth realizing."

DN 22:
"And where does this craving, when arising, arise? And where, when dwelling, does it dwell? Whatever seems endearing and agreeable in terms of the world (6 senses + 6 sense objects + 6 sense consciousness + 6 contacts + 6 types of feelings + 6 types of perceptions + 6 types of intentions + 6 types of thoughts + 6 types of evaluations): that is where this craving, when arising, arises. That is where, when dwelling, it dwells."

Dhp XXIV
PTS: Dhp 334-359
Tanhavagga: Craving

335-336
If this sticky, uncouth craving overcomes you in the world, your sorrows grow like wild grass after rain. If, in the world, you overcome this uncouth craving, hard to escape, sorrows roll off you, like water beads off a lotus.

337
This I say to you: Good luck to all assembled here! Dig up the root of craving, like one in search of the fragrant root of the birana grass. Let not Mara crush you again and again, as a flood crushes a reed.

338
If its root remains undamaged & strong, a tree, even if cut, will grow back. So too if latent craving is not rooted out, this suffering returns again & again.

349-350
For a person forced on by his thinking, fierce in his passion, focused on beauty, craving grows all the more. He's the one who tightens the bond. But one who delights in the stilling of thinking, always mindful cultivating a focus on the foul: He's the one who will make an end, the one who will cut Mara's bond.

339
The misguided man in whom the thirty-six currents* of craving strongly rush toward pleasurable objects, is swept away by the flood of his passionate thoughts.

340. Everywhere these currents flow, and the creeper (of craving) sprouts and grows. Seeing that the creeper has sprung up, cut off its root with wisdom.
Are these 36 streams the same as what are mentioned in AN 4.199?

AN 4.199:
"And which are the 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is internal? There being 'I am,' there comes to be 'I am here,' there comes to be 'I am like this' ... 'I am otherwise' ... 'I am bad' ... 'I am good' ... 'I might be' ... 'I might be here' ... 'I might be like this' ... 'I might be otherwise' ... 'May I be' ... 'May I be here' ... 'May I be like this' ... 'May I be otherwise' ... 'I will be' ... 'I will be here' ... 'I will be like this' ... 'I will be otherwise.' These are the 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is internal.

"And which are the 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is external? There being 'I am because of this (or: by means of this),' there comes to be 'I am here because of this,' there comes to be 'I am like this because of this' ... 'I am otherwise because of this' ... 'I am bad because of this' ... 'I am good because of this' ... 'I might be because of this' ... 'I might be here because of this' ... 'I might be like this because of this' ... 'I might be otherwise because of this' ... 'May I be because of this' ... 'May I be here because of this' ... 'May I be like this because of this' ... 'May I be otherwise because of this' ... 'I will be because of this' ... 'I will be here because of this' ... 'I will be like this because of this' ... 'I will be otherwise because of this.' These are the 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is external.

"Thus there are 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is internal and 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is external. These are called the 36 craving-verbalizations. Thus, with 36 craving-verbalizations of this sort in the past, 36 in the future, and 36 in the present, there are 108 craving-verbalizations."

Metta to all!

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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Intention?

Post by starter » Sun Jul 29, 2012 3:09 pm

Hi I found another translation for Dhammapada 349-350:

349. For a person tormented (dominated) by evil thoughts*, who is passion-dominated and given to the pursuit of pleasure (or "focused on beauty" as in another translation?), his craving steadily grows. He makes the fetter strong, indeed.

350. He who delights in subduing evil thoughts, who meditates on the impurities and is ever mindful — it is he who will make an end of craving and rend asunder Mara's fetter.

* The word "evil" is very important here -- even though "evil" might not be in the original Pali text (?), in the context of this teaching the thoughts should be evil or unwholesome thoughts, not just all thinking . The other translation without the word "evil" could be misleading in that we should still all thinking and "delights in the stilling of thinking", which is probably not really what the Buddha taught in MN 19:

"And as I remained thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, thinking imbued with renunciation arose in me. I discerned that 'Thinking imbued with renunciation has arisen in me; and that leads neither to my own affliction, nor to the affliction of others, nor to the affliction of both. It fosters discernment, promotes lack of vexation, & leads to Unbinding. If I were to think & ponder in line with that even for a night... even for a day... even for a day & night, I do not envision any danger that would come from it, except that thinking & pondering a long time would tire the body. When the body is tired, the mind is disturbed; and a disturbed mind is far from concentration.' So I steadied my mind right within, settled, unified, & concentrated it. Why is that? So that my mind would not be disturbed."

I've also found an explanation of "the 36 steams" mentioned in Dhp 340 by Acharya Buddharakkhita:

The thirty-six currents of craving: the three cravings — for sensual pleasure, for continued existence (becoming), and for annihilation (non-becoming) — in relation to each of the twelve bases — the six sense organs, including mind, and their corresponding objects."
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .budd.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

But I found this explanation not so convincing as to cravings for "continued existence" and "annihilation" in relation to each of the five sense organs/objects.

Your input would be appreciated. Metta to all!

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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Thoughts (samma sankappa)?

Post by starter » Tue Jul 31, 2012 2:06 pm

As discussed in the thread "SN 45.8: Magga-vibhanga Sutta — An Analysis of the Path" (http://dhammawheel.com/viewtopic.php?f=25&t=13252" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;), the second path factor to practice, perfect and possess for the Noble 8-factored Path is Right Thoughts (thoughts of non-sensual desire, thoughts of non-ill will and thoughts of non-harming). Right Intention is probably not the accurate translation of samma sankappa and could be misleading. Renunciation is probably also not a very good translation considering its other meanings like letting-go of cravings for becoming/non-becoming, and letting-go of delusion/wrong view/"self".

By the way, I wish a website run by some Aryan disciplie(s) could be established including only strictly selected teachings:
the suttas with accurate translations and the Dhamma talks/books/essays/study aids/practice guides with no wrong/misleading contents. Your input would be appreciated.

Metta to all,

Starter
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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Thoughts (samma sankappa)?

Post by starter » Fri Aug 03, 2012 1:43 am

Hi would like to share with some tips for how to overcome thoughts of anger/ill will:

1) When anger/ill will arises, detect such a mind state ASAP, and acknowledge "I'm now caught in anger/ill will".

2) Have minimum contact with others, especially avoid any contact with the person(s) you are angry with. Stop and cancel that angry email/mail you want to send out. Don't run to the person or call/talk to him. Try to calm down first.

Tell yourself: "You are caught in anger because of your perception. But your perception might well be wrong and shouldn't be trusted, and actually it's not even yours. This feeling of anger isn't really yours either. Don't let it grasp and dominate the mind. It'll go away. It's actually all empty. The aversion/anger is a defilement, a bad hindrance. It hurts yourself (and others if acting upon), and obstructs wisdom. Let it go."

3) If the above method doesn't work, use the other methods in MN 20. Do something that can really transfer your attention/calm your mind (e.g. read the Metta sutta). Watch and calm down the feeling of the anger/ill will, rather than the object that caused the anger -- don't dwell on the object of anger and focus on others' faults / blame others -- this will only feed anger and make it stronger and last longer and do more harm and damage. Like a fire fighter, put down the fire ASAP instead of trying to find the one who set the fire on and put him in jail.

4) Search internally instead of externally, in order to remove our own defilements (delusion, greed and aversion) and attachments. Ask instead: "why are you so angry [aversion!]? You are angry not because he didn't do what he should have done or he did what he shouldn't have done, but rather you wanted him to behave the way you like in order to please/satisfy YOU [greed!], in order not to hurt/harm YOU [aversion!]. But who is this YOU? [delusion!] And, what are you specifically attached to? Is this really worth clinging to? Are all these worth the price of the peace of mind?".

Well, it's much easier to say than to do. But I hope whenever dukkha arises, I can remember to use Yoniso Manasikara to investigate the cause of dukkha and the way leading to the ending of dukkha, and cultivate Right Thought.

Metta to all,

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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Thoughts (samma sankappa)?

Post by starter » Sat Aug 04, 2012 4:58 pm

In the Chinese equivalent of MN19, which is MA102, the following points are different from the English version:

1) The three wholesome thoughts are thoughts of non-sensual desire or not-craving for sensual pleasure (instead of renunciation), thoughts of non-hatred or not-hating, and thoughts of non-harming or not-harming. But exactly what are these three types of wholesome thoughts? Are they thoughts of letting-go of sensual desires (or not-craving for sensual pleasures), thoughts of equanimity and loving kindness/good will, and thoughts of compassion and forgiveness?

2) 在遠離獨住。心無放逸。修行精勤。生無欲念。我即覺生無欲念。不自害.不害他。亦不俱害。修慧不煩勞而得涅槃。覺不自害.不
害他。亦不俱害。修慧不煩勞而得涅槃。便速修習廣布 [hence immediately cultivate (the three wholesome thoughts) more in line with that, which is not in the English translation]。復生無恚念.無害念。我即覺生無恚念.無害念。不自害.不害他。亦不俱害。修慧不煩勞而得涅槃。覺不自害.不害他.亦不俱害。修慧不煩勞而得涅槃。便速修習廣布。我生無欲念.多思念。生無恚念.無害
念.多思念。 我復作是念。多思念者。身定喜忘。則便損心。我寧可治內心。常住在內止息。一意得定。令不損心。["... And as I remained thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, thinking imbued with harmlessness arose in me. I discerned that 'Thinking imbued with harmlessness has arisen in me; and that leads neither to my own affliction, nor to the affliction of others, nor to the affliction of both. It fosters discernment, promotes lack of vexation, & leads to Unbinding. If I were to think & ponder in line with that even for a night... even for a day... even for a day & night, I do not envision any danger that would come from it, except that thinking & pondering a long time would tire the body. When the body is tired, the mind is disturbed; and a disturbed mind is far from concentration.' So I steadied my mind right within, settled, unified, & concentrated it. Why is that? So that my mind would not be disturbed."]

3) 若比丘多念無欲念者。則捨欲念以多念無欲念故。若比丘多念無恚念.無害念者。則捨恚念.害念。是三善念。無欲念.無恚念.無害念也。 [Whatever a monk keeps pursuing with his thinking, that becomes the inclination of his awareness. If a monk keeps pursuing thinking imbued with non-sensual desire, (he consequently) abandons thinking imbued with sensuality, because his mind is bent by that thinking imbued with renunciation. ... ]

-- [This is the fist method taught in MN20 -- use wholesome thoughts to get rid of unwholesome thoughts], the meaning of which becomes obscured in the English translation.

4) 至無事處山林樹下空安靜處。宴坐思惟 (quietly/comfortably sit and meditate on a thought )。勿得放逸。勤加精進。無令後悔。 [MN translation: "Over there are the roots of trees; over there, empty dwellings. Practice jhana, monks. Don't be heedless. Don't later fall into regret".]

The equivalent of the word "jhana" is quietly/comfortably sit and meditate on a thought in MA102; such "thinking" meditation is also mentioned in the other suttas:

[MA105: 因闲居静处。宴坐思惟。修行精勤。心无放逸故。... 于现法中自知自觉。自作证成就游。]

中阿含经云大人八念,阿那律陀在枝提瘦水渚林中,宴坐思惟,心作是念 (meditate on this thought):道从无欲,非有欲得,乃至道从智慧,非愚痴得。...

[MA 97: 爾時,尊者阿難[Ananda]閑居獨處,宴坐思惟,心作是念 (meditate on this thought): 「此緣起甚奇,極甚深、明亦甚深,然,我觀見至淺至淺。」

It seems strange to me that the Buddha would ask us to practice thoughtless jhana at the end of MN 19 to summarize this teaching, after all the teachings about how to distinguish the two types of thoughts, how to let-get unwholesome thoughts and cultivate wholesome thoughts. It makes sense now that the meditation he asked us to do is actually practicing his teaching -- right thinking. Well in the middle of MN 19 he did teach us to rest our mind in thoughtless jhana when thinking too much. But that's a different meditation.

So it seems to me the Buddha has taught two types of meditation (禪): one type with thinking like he taught in MN 19, which is kind of similar to Vipassana as I understand, and another type is without thinking for jhana, which is kind of similar to Samadhi meditation. [for more details see Two types of "Vipassana meditation" taught in MN 19 http://dhammawheel.com/viewtopic.php?f=44&t=13437" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;]

It appears to me that the Buddha had mostly used formal meditation practice (done mostly during sitting meditation and sometimes walking meditation ) except for the training of right speech/action/livelihood/sense restraint/full awareness & clear comprehension, which combined with daily activities.

Please correct me if I'm wrong. Thanks and metta!
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SayalayMaCandasobha
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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Thoughts (samma sankappa)?

Post by SayalayMaCandasobha » Wed Aug 08, 2012 1:23 pm

Hello Starter,

Sādhu 3x for your thoughts on renunciation.
Here is a talk of Sayadaw U Thuzana on sammā saṅkappa to nourrish our reflections.
http://santisantisukha.over-blog.com/pa ... 33217.html

May you be able to walk the Noble Eightfold Path smoothly and attain liberation in the near future.
With mettā
Sayalay Ma Candasobhā

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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Thoughts (samma sankappa)?

Post by starter » Thu Aug 09, 2012 12:52 am

Hello Sayalay Ma Candasobhā,

Welcome to Dhammawheel! I'm happy to have you join us and many thanks for your nice post. I've downloaded the talk and will listen to it. I hope to see more of your posts!

Metta,

Starter

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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Thoughts (samma sankappa)?

Post by starter » Thu Aug 09, 2012 2:09 pm

Figured out that the three types of wholesome thoughts are thoughts of letting-go of sensual desires or thoughts of not-craving for sensual pleasures, thoughts of letting-go of hatread/ill will or thoughts to have no anger/hatread/ill will, and thoughts of letting-go of harming or thoughts of not to harm. All these wholesome thoughts contain not only just their opposite (e.g. loving kindness/good will, compassion and forgiveness,which is the 1st method taught in MN 20), but also the other methods taught in MN 20 and other suttas (e.g. SN22.59, Thag 21) for letting-go unwholesome thoughts.

Metta to all!

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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Thoughts (samma sankappa)?

Post by starter » Fri Aug 17, 2012 11:27 pm

Found another sutta on how to cultivate right thinking/right thoughts, or more precisely, how to abandon/dispel unwholesome thoughts:

MN 66:

"Udayin, there are these four types of people to be found existing in the world. Which four? There is the case where a certain person is practicing for the abandoning & relinquishing of craving/attachments. As he is practicing for the abandoning & relinquishing of craving/attachments, memories & resolves (thoughts) associated with craving/attachments assail him. He acquiesces to them. He does not abandon them, destroy them, dispel them, or wipe them out of existence. I tell you, Udayin, that this sort of person is fettered, not unfettered. Why is that? Because I have known the diversity of faculties with regard to this type of person.

"Then there is the case where a certain person is practicing for the abandoning & relinquishing of craving/attachments. As he is practicing for the abandoning & relinquishing of craving/attachments, memories & resolves associated with craving/attachments assail him. He does not acquiesce to them. He abandons them, destroys them, dispels them, & wipes them out of existence. I tell you, Udayin, that this sort of person is fettered, not unfettered. Why is that? Because I have known the diversity of faculties with regard to this type of person.

"Then there is the case where a certain person is practicing for the abandoning & relinquishing of craving/attachments. As he is practicing for the abandoning & relinquishing of craving/attachments, then — from time to time, owing to lapses in mindfulness — he is assailed by memories & resolves associated with craving/attachments. Slow is the arising of his mindfulness, but then he quickly abandons [those memories & resolves], destroys them, dispels them, & wipes them out of existence. Just as when two or three drops of water fall onto an iron pan heated all day: Slow is the falling of the drops of water, but they quickly vanish & disappear. In the same way, there is the case where a certain person is practicing for the abandoning & relinquishing of craving/attachments. As he is practicing for the abandoning & relinquishing of craving/attachments, then — from time to time, owing to lapses in mindfulness — he is assailed by memories & resolves associated with craving/attachments. Slow is the arising of his mindfulness, but then he quickly abandons [those memories & resolves], destroys them, dispels them, & wipes them out of existence. I tell you, Udayin, that this sort of person is fettered, not unfettered. Why is that? Because I have known the diversity of faculties with regard to this type of person.

"Then there is the case where a certain person, realizing that craving/attachments are the root of suffering & stress, is without craving/attachments, released in the ending of craving/attachments. I tell you, Udayin, that this sort of person is unfettered, not fettered. Why is that? Because I have known the diversity of faculties with regard to this type of person."

1) The first type of people in the sutta hasn’t developed mindfulness yet.
2) The second type of people in the sutta is establishing mindfulness but five hindrances are not yet suppressed.
3) The third type of people in the sutta has established and is developing mindfulness, having hindrances usually suppressed.

We should establish and develop mindfulness in order to cultivate right thoughts. Metta to all!

PS: Please see the following thread for why Upadhi is translated as craving/attachments in this sutta.
SN 1.12 Nandati: Delight
http://www.dhammawheel.com/viewtopic.php?f=25&t=19351
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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Thoughts (samma sankappa)?

Post by starter » Sun Aug 26, 2012 12:41 am

Understood today the difference between ill will (persistent hostility/hatred and will for others' suffering) and anger (could be temporary and non-persistent without hostility and ill will). The second path factor to perfect is non-ill will, not non-anger or non-aversion. The non-returners don't have self-identity view (five aggregates are non-self, plus non-eternal "self"), wrong grasp of sila and other rules/observances, doubts/uncertainties, sensual desires of five senses, and ill will (not anger/aversion).

Metta to all!

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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Thoughts (samma sankappa)?

Post by starter » Sun Sep 30, 2012 7:31 pm

Just to add the suttas on the drawbacks of sensuality:

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dham ... index.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Metta to all!

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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Intention/Thoughts?

Post by starter » Mon Oct 08, 2012 3:20 pm

Just to add the application of 4NT in cultivating samma sankappa summarizing the teachings in MN 117, SĀ 785 and SĀ 789:

"And what is the right resolve that is without asava's, transcendent, a factor of the path? The thinking, directed thinking, resolve, (mental) fixity, transfixion, focused awareness, & verbal fabrications of one developing the noble path whose mind is noble, whose mind is without asava's, who is fully possessed of the noble path. This is the right resolve that is without asava's, transcendent, a factor of the path." (MN 117)

A noble disciple attends to suffering and contemplates suffering; attends to the cause of suffering and contemplates the cause; attends to the cessation of suffering and contemplates the cessation; attends to the path and contemplates the path; [directing/inclination of the mind + fixation of the mind + absorption of the mind (on an intention/thought -- non-sensuality, or non-ill will, or non-cruelty)], discriminate (each intention/thought), resolve, understand, repeatedly incline/direct the mind and make resolution for right intention/thoughts. [何等為正志是聖、出世間、無漏、不取、正盡苦、轉向苦邊?謂:聖弟子苦、苦思惟,集……滅……道、道思惟,無漏思惟相應心法,分別、自決、意解、計數、立意,是名正志,是聖、出世間、無漏、不取、正盡苦、轉向苦邊。SĀ 785]

Metta to all!

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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Thoughts (samma sankappa)?

Post by starter » Sun Dec 30, 2012 10:41 pm

Dear Friends,

Happy new year!

Today I read Ajahn Chah's Dhamma talk "The Last Gift", which is very helpful for letting-go of our worldly attachments. I'd like to share with you the following quotes:

"Everything has to change in line with its condition. The truth of these conditions—if you try to fix them in a way that’s not right— won’t respond at all."

"What’s the world? The world is any preoccupation that gets you stirred up, that disturbs you right now."

"If it arises in the mind, make yourself understand: The world is nothing but a preoccupation."

"There’s nothing that’s really you or yours." "If any preoccupation comes in to bother the mind, just say in your heart, “Leave me alone. Don’t bother me. You’re no affair of mine.”

"Today I’ve brought you some dhamma as a gift in your time of illness. I don’t have any other gift to give. There’s no need to bring you any material gift, for you have plenty of material things in your house, and over time they just cause you difficulties. So I’ve brought you some dhamma, something of substance that will never run out. Now that you’ve heard this dhamma, you can pass it on to any number of other people, and it’ll never run out. It’ll never stop. It’s the truth of the dhamma, a truth that always stays as it is."

With metta,

Starter
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Re: Right way to cultivate Right Thinking (samma sankappa)?

Post by starter » Fri Jun 14, 2013 3:26 am

I'd like to share my updated understanding concerning how to cultivate Right Thinking, and would like to get your input:

1) First step: understand the true meaning of sensuality and renunciation (non-sensuality), comprehend sensual desire entirely -- learn the breadth/diversity of sensual desires,their various manifestations, and lust-inducing objects.

Likewise, comprehend ill will / non-ill will and harming/non-harming.

2) Second step: be clearly aware of the thinking imbued with sensual desire / ill will / harming -- detect the thoughts as soon as they arise; likewise, be clearly aware of thinking imbued with renunciation / non-ill will / non-harming [in other words, thinking of letting-go of sensual desire / ill will /harming) and detect them as soon as they arise, and keep dividing the thinking into two sorts (right thinking and wrong thinking) as the Buddha did:

"'Why don't I keep dividing my thinking into two sorts?' So I made thinking imbued with sensuality, thinking imbued with ill will, & thinking imbued with harmfulness one sort, and thinking imbued with renunciation, thinking imbued with non-ill will, & thinking imbued with harmlessness another sort." (MN 19)

It helps to know how sensual desire comes to arise (through unwise attention to lust-inducing objects) and when/how it subsides (through wise attention to remove the attention from lust-inducing objects). When sensual desire arises, switch the mind from wanting to mindfulness – mindfulness of the arising and fading away of the desire, noting the transition from wanting to becoming free from wanting and the greater happiness of peace and ease arising from not wanting, noting the transition from being lost in sensual pleasure to becoming mindful of the sensuality.

3) Third step: comprehend and familiarize the drawbacks/danger of sensual pleasures / ill will / harming, and the reward of renunciation / non-ill will / non-harming thoroughly, so that the heart will leap up at renunciation / non-ill will / non-harming:

"So it is, Ananda. So it is. Even I myself, before my Awakening, when I was still an unawakened Bodhisatta, thought: 'Renunciation is good. Seclusion is good.' But my heart didn't leap up at renunciation, didn't grow confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace. The thought occurred to me: 'What is the cause, what is the reason, why my heart doesn't leap up at renunciation, doesn't grow confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace?' Then the thought occurred to me: 'I haven't seen the drawback of sensual pleasures; I haven't pursued [that theme]. I haven't understood the reward of renunciation; I haven't familiarized myself with it. That's why my heart doesn't leap up at renunciation, doesn't grow confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace.'

"Then the thought occurred to me: 'If, having seen the drawback of sensual pleasures, I were to pursue that theme; and if, having understood the reward of renunciation, I were to familiarize myself with it, there's the possibility that my heart would leap up at renunciation, grow confident, steadfast, & firm, seeing it as peace.'

"So at a later time, having seen the drawback of sensual pleasures, I pursued that theme; having understood the reward of renunciation, I familiarized myself with it. My heart leaped up at renunciation, grew confident, steadfast, & firm, seeing it as peace. ... " (AN 9.41)

For relevant suttas see notes PS1 and PS2.

4) Fourth step: apply the above understanding and the methods the Buddha taught us in MN 19 and 20 into abandoning wrong thinking and cultivating right thinking, and this should be done in whichever postures (Iti 4.11; Iti 115).

"And as I remained thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, thinking imbued with sensuality [ill will, harming] arose in me. I discerned that 'Thinking imbued with sensuality [ill will, harming] has arisen in me; and that leads to my own affliction or to the affliction of others or to the affliction of both. It obstructs discernment, promotes vexation, & does not lead to Unbinding.'

"As I noticed that it leads to my own affliction, it subsided. As I noticed that it leads to the affliction of others... to the affliction of both... it obstructs discernment, promotes vexation, & does not lead to Unbinding, it subsided. Whenever thinking imbued with sensuality [ill will, harming] had arisen, I simply abandoned it, destroyed it, dispelled it, wiped it out of existence."

"And as I remained thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, thinking imbued with renunciation [non-ill will, non-harming] arose in me. I discerned that 'Thinking imbued with renunciation [non-ill will, non-harming] has arisen in me; and that leads neither to my own affliction, nor to the affliction of others, nor to the affliction of both. It fosters discernment, promotes lack of vexation, & leads to Unbinding. If I were to think & ponder in line with that even for a night... even for a day... even for a day & night, I do not envision any danger that would come from it, except that thinking & pondering a long time would tire the body. When the body is tired, the mind is disturbed; and a disturbed mind is far from concentration.' So I steadied my mind right within, settled, unified, & concentrated it. Why is that? So that my mind would not be disturbed." (MN19)

For the other four methods for dispelling unwholesome thoughts see MN 20.

§ 110. {Iti 4.11; Iti 115}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "If, while he is walking, there arises in a monk a thought of sensuality, a thought of ill-will, or a thought of harmfulness, and he does not quickly abandon, dispel, demolish, or wipe that thought out of existence, then a monk walking with such a lack of ardency & concern is called continually & continuously lethargic & low in his persistence.
"If, while he is standing...
"If, while he is sitting...
"If, while he is lying down, there arises in a monk a thought of sensuality, a thought of ill-will, or a thought of harmfulness, and he does not quickly abandon, dispel, demolish, or wipe that thought out of existence, then a monk lying down with such a lack of ardency & concern is called continually & continuously lethargic & low in his persistence.
"But if, while he is walking, there arises in a monk a thought of sensuality, a thought of ill-will, or a thought of harmfulness, and he quickly abandons, dispels, demolishes, & wipes that thought out of existence, then a monk walking with such ardency & concern is called continually & continuously resolute, one with persistence aroused.
"If, while he is standing...
"If, while he is sitting...
"If, while he is lying down, there arises in a monk a thought of sensuality, a thought of ill-will, or a thought of harmfulness, and he quickly abandons, dispels, demolishes, & wipes that thought out of existence, then a monk lying down with such ardency & concern is called continually & continuously resolute, one with persistence aroused."

Whether walking, standing,
sitting, or lying down,
whoever thinks evil thoughts,
related to the household life,
is following no path at all,
smitten
with delusory things.
He's incapable,
a monk like this,
of touching superlative
self-awakening.
But whoever —
walking, standing,
sitting, or lying down —
overcomes thought,
delighting in the stilling of thought:
he's capable,
a monk like this,
of touching superlative
self-awakening.

Thanks and metta,

Starter

PS 1: Drawbacks of sensuality, ill will and harming

The drawbacks of sensuality:

see http://www.accesstoinsight.org/index-subject.html#s Sensuality

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dham ... index.html

Ill will: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/index-subject.html#i

AN 10.80: ten reflections to help overcome hatred ["One does not get worked up over impossibilities" (when it's out of one's control?)]

Dhp 3:
"Whatever harm an enemy may do to an enemy, or a hater to a hater, an ill-directed mind inflicts on oneself a greater harm.
Neither mother, father, nor any other relative can do one greater good than one's own well-directed mind."

The sources of conflict and hostility: MN 18, DN 21, Sn 4.11, Sn 4.15

MN 18:
"The sort of doctrine, friend, where one does not keep quarreling with anyone in the cosmos with its devas, Maras, & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & brahmans, its royalty & commonfolk; the sort [of doctrine] where perceptions no longer obsess the brahman who remains dissociated from sensuality, free from perplexity, his uncertainty cut away, devoid of craving for becoming & non-becoming. Such is my doctrine, such is what I proclaim."

"If, monk, with regard to the cause whereby the perceptions & papañca (proliferation) assail a person, there is nothing there to relish, welcome, or remain fastened to, then that is the end of the obsessions of passion, the obsessions of resistance, the obsessions of views, the obsessions of uncertainty, the obsessions of conceit, the obsessions of passion for becoming, & the obsessions of ignorance. That is the end of taking up rods & bladed weapons, of arguments, quarrels, disputes, accusations, divisive tale-bearing, & false speech. That is where these evil, unskillful things cease without remainder."

DN 21:

"The world is made up of many properties, various properties. Because of the many & various properties in the world, then whichever property living beings get fixated on, they become entrenched & latch onto it, saying, 'Only this is true; anything else is worthless.'"

SN 4.11
"Conditioned by name & form
is contact.
In longing do graspings,
possessions have their cause.
When longing isn't
mine-ness does not exist.
When forms have disappeared
contacts don't touch."

"... the sage, ponders dependencies.
On knowing them, released,
he doesn't get into disputes,
doesn't meet with becoming & not-becoming:
he is enlightened."

SN 4.15:

"When embraced,
the rod of violence [physical/verbal/mental violence]
breeds danger & fear:
...
Seeing nothing in the end
but competition,
I felt discontent.
And then I saw
an arrow here,
so very hard to see,
embedded in the heart.
Overcome by this arrow
you run in all directions.
But simply on pulling it out
you don't run [to any of the destinations of rebirth],
you don't sink [into any of the four floods of sensuality, views, becoming, and ignorance].

Whatever things are tied down in the world,
you shouldn't be set on them.
Having totally penetrated
sensual pleasures and passions [kama],
you should train for your own
Unbinding.
Be truthful, not insolent,
not deceptive, rid of divisiveness.
Without anger, the sage
should cross over the evil
of greed & avarice.
He should conquer laziness,
weariness,
sloth;
shouldn't consort with heedlessness,
shouldn't stand firm in his pride —
the man with his heart set
on Unbinding.
He shouldn't engage in lying,
shouldn't create a sense of allure in form,
should fully fathom conceit,
and live refraining from impulsiveness;
shouldn't delight in what's old,
prefer what's new,
grieve over decline,
get entangled in
what's dazzling & bright.

I call greed
a 'great flood';
hunger, a swift current.
Preoccupations are ripples;
sensuality, a bog
hard to cross over.
Not deviating from truth,
a sage stands on high ground: a brahman.

Having renounced All,
he is said to be at peace;
having clearly known,
he is an attainer-of-wisdom;
knowing the Dhamma,
he's independent.
Moving rightly through the world,
he doesn't envy
anyone here.

Whoever here has gone over & beyond
sensual passions —
an attachment hard
to transcend in the world,
doesn't sorrow,
doesn't fret.
He, his stream cut, is free
from bonds.

Burn up what's before (past),
and have nothing for after (future).
If you don't grasp
at what's in between [present]
you will go about, calm.

For whom, in name & form,
in every way,
there's no sense of mine,
and who doesn't grieve
over what is not:
he, in the world,
isn't defeated,
suffers no loss.

To whom there doesn't occur
'This is mine,'
for whom 'nothing is others,'
feeling no sense of mine-ness,
doesn't grieve at the thought
'I have nothing.'

Not harsh,
not greedy,
not perturbed,
everywhere
in tune:
this is the reward
— I say when asked —
for those who are free
from pre-conceptions.

For one unperturbed
— who knows —
there's no accumulating.
Abstaining, unaroused,
he everywhere sees
security.
The sage
doesn't speak of himself
as among those who are higher,
equal,
or lower.
At peace, free of selfishness,
he doesn't embrace,
doesn't reject,"
the Blessed One said.


As the only thing that's good to kill: SN 1.71
What to do if someone is angry with you: SN 7.2, SN 11.4
What to do when Anger arises: Thag 6.12
The best response to Anger (a debate between two deities): SN 11.5
Anger can carve into you like an inscription in stone: AN 3.130
Anger can never be conquered with more anger: SN 11.4, Dhp 3
"Anger" (Dhammapada XVII)
The dangers of giving in to anger: AN 7.60

In war, there is no winning side: SN 3.14, SN 3.15
Only forbearance, never revenge, can bring an end to war: Mv 10.2.3-20


Harming:

Non-harming/Non-violence leads to happiness after death: Dhp 132
As a supporting condition for Awakening: Dhp 270
Isn't all there is to the Buddhist path: MN 78
The story of Angulimala the bandit: MN 86
How a wise person moves in society: Dhp 49
"The Rod" (Dhammapada X)
"Non-violence" (Study Guide)

PS 2: Reward of renunciation

Bliss
[The Buddha:] "Is it true, Bhaddiya that, on going to a forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty dwelling, you repeatedly exclaim, 'What bliss! What bliss!'?"

[Ven. Bhaddiya:] "Yes, lord."

"What meaning do you have in mind that you repeatedly exclaim, 'What bliss! What bliss!'?"

"Before, when I was a householder, maintaining the bliss of kingship, I had guards posted within and without the royal apartments, within and without the city, within and without the countryside. But even though I was thus guarded, thus protected, I dwelled in fear — agitated, distrustful, and afraid. But now, on going alone to a forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty dwelling, I dwell without fear, unagitated, confident, and unafraid — unconcerned, unruffled, my wants satisfied, with my mind like a wild deer. This is the meaning I have in mind that I repeatedly exclaim, 'What bliss! What bliss!'"

Then, on realizing the significance of that, the Blessed One on that occasion exclaimed:

In whom there exists
no provocation,
& for whom becoming & non-becoming
are overcome,
he is one — beyond fear,
blissful,
without grief,
whom the devas can't see.

— Ud 2.10


A sound night's sleep
[The Buddha:] "Now, what do you think: Suppose a householder or householder's son has a house with a gabled roof, plastered inside & out, draft-free, with close-fitting door & windows shut against the wind. Inside he has a horse-hair couch spread with a long-fleeced coverlet, a white wool coverlet, an embroidered coverlet, a rug of kadali-deer hide, with a canopy above, & red cushions on either side. And there a lamp would be burning, and his four wives, with their many charms, would be attending to him. Would he sleep in ease, or not? Or how does this strike you?"

[Hatthaka of Alavi:] "Yes, lord, he would sleep in ease. Of those in the world who sleep in ease, he would be one."

"But what do you think, young man. Might there arise in that householder or householder's son any bodily fevers or fevers of mind born of passion so that — burned with those passion-born fevers — he would sleep miserably?"

"Yes, lord."

"As for those passion-born fevers — burned with which the householder or householder's son would sleep miserably — that passion has been abandoned by the Tathagata, its root destroyed, made like a palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising. Therefore he sleeps in ease.

"Now, what do you think, young man. Might there arise in that householder or householder's son any bodily fevers or fevers of mind born of aversion so that — burned with those aversion-born fevers — he would sleep miserably?"

"Yes, lord."

"As for those aversion-born fevers ...

"As for those delusion-born fevers ...

Always, always,
he sleeps in ease:
the brahman totally unbound,
who doesn't adhere
to sensual pleasures,
who's without acquisitions
& cooled.
Having cut all ties
& subdued fear in the heart,
calmed,
he sleeps in ease,
having reached peace
of awareness.

— AN 3.34


Rest

'Subject to birth, subject to aging,
subject to death,
run-of-the-mill people
are repelled by those who suffer
from that to which they are subject.
And if I were to be repelled
by beings subject to these things,
it would not be fitting for me,
living as they do.'

As I maintained this attitude —
knowing the Dhamma
without acquisitions —
I overcame all intoxication
with health, youth, & life
as one who sees
renunciation as rest.

For me, energy arose,
Unbinding was clearly seen.
There's now no way
I could partake of sensual pleasures.
Having followed the holy life,
I will not return.

— AN 3.38


Fearless
"There is the case of the person who has abandoned passion, desire, fondness, thirst, fever, and craving for sensuality. Then he comes down with a serious disease. As he comes down with a serious disease, the thought does not occur to him, 'O, those beloved sensual pleasures will be taken from me, and I will be taken from them!' He does not grieve, is not tormented; does not weep, beat his breast, or grow delirious. This is a person who, subject to death, is not afraid or in terror of death."

— AN 4.184


PS 3: the first step to cultivate right thinking might be non-unrighteous greed / non-covetousness, non-ill will/non-hate, non-wrong view. The above-mentioned steps can be applied as well.

MN 41:

"And how are there three kinds of mental conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct?Here someone is covetous: he is a coveter of another's chattels and property thus: 'Oh, that what is another's were mine!' Or he has a mind of ill-will, with the intention of a mind affected by hate thus: 'May these beings be slain and slaughtered, may they be cut off, perish, or be annihilated!' Or he has wrong view, distorted vision, thus: 'There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed, no fruit and ripening of good and bad kammas, no this world, no other world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously (born) beings,[1] no good and virtuous monks and brahmans that have themselves realized by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.'[2] That is how there are three kinds of mental conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct."

"And how is one made pure in three ways by mental action? There is the case where a certain person is not covetous. He does not covet the belongings of others, thinking, 'O, that what belongs to others would be mine!' He bears no ill will and is not corrupt in the resolves of his heart. [He thinks,] 'May these beings be free from animosity, free from oppression, free from trouble, and may they look after themselves with ease!' He has right view and is not warped in the way he sees things: 'There is what is given, what is offered, what is sacrificed. There are fruits & results of good & bad actions. There is this world & the next world. There is mother & father. There are spontaneously reborn beings; there are brahmans & contemplatives who, faring rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves.' This is how one is made pure in three ways by mental action." — AN 10.176
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