21 Kinds of Wrong Livelihood for Bhikkhus & Animal Arts (Tiracchāna Vijjā)
wenty-one Kinds of Wrong Livelihood for Bhikkhus
1.Medical practice (vejjakammaṃ karoti)
2.Acting as a messenger (dūtakammaṃ karoti)
3.Doing things at the behest of laymen (pahiṇakammaṃ karoti)
4.Lancing boils (gaṇḍaṃ phāleti)
5.Giving oil for medical application (arumakkhaṇaṃ deti)
6.Giving emetics (uddhaṃ virecanaṃ deti)
7.Giving purgatives (adho virecanaṃ deti)
8. Preparing oil for nosetreatment (natthutelaṃ pacati)
9.Preparing oil for medicine (pivanatelaṃ pacati)
10.Presenting bamboos (veḷudānaṃ deti)
11.Presenting leaves (pattadānaṃ deti)
12. Presenting ﬂowers (pupphadānaṃ deti)
13.Presenting Fruits (phaladānaṃ deti)
14.Presenting soapclay (sinānadānaṃ deti)
15.Presenting toothsticks (dantakaṭṭhadānaṃ deti)
16.Presenting water for washing the face (mukhodakadānaṃ deti)
17.Presenting talcum powder (cuṇṇamattikadānaṃ deti)
18. Using ﬂattering speech (cāṭukamyaṃ karoti)
19.Acting like halfcooked bean soup, i.e.,speaking halftruths (muggasūpiyaṃ karoti)
20.Fondling children (pāribattaṃ karoti)
21.Running errands (jaṅghapesaniyaṃ karoti)
They can be summarised as follows:
1.Palmistry, divination by signs, portents, dreams, or body marks.
2.Knowledge of animal behaviour.
3.Judging the value of gems, livestock, and other goods.
4.Predictions about the movements of armies.
5.Predictions about the movements of planets.
6.Predictions about the weather.
7.Predictions about the harvest.
8.Accountancy and mathematics.
9.Composition of poetry.
11.Arranging marriages and divorces.
12.Advising on investments.
14.Black magic and spells.
16.Consecrating building sites.
Although bhikkhus can visit a new house or a building site, and
chant to ward oﬀ dangers and evil spirits, they should not be involved in
choosing the site, the position for buildings on the site, nor the auspicious
time for starting work. Such decisions should be made by qualiﬁed
town-planners, architects, and builders.
17.Giving ritual bathings.
18.Giving various kinds of medical Treatments.
A bhikkhu should not do anything that would normally be done by lay people for a fee. He can teach secular knowledge or help others with voluntary labour out of compassion, but he should not accept anything in return. If he accepts any kind of reward for such services, it is wrong livelihood, and any goods he has received should be forfeited to another monk. Allowable goods can then be returned to him, and he can use them, but a scrupulous bhikkhu would normally give such things awayto others.
A bhikkhu’s primary duty is to observe the Vinaya, study the Dhamma,and strive in meditation to realise nibbāna. If he receives any suitable gifts that people oﬀer out of faith, it is right livelihood as he is fulﬁlling a monk’s duty. If he can also teach Dhamma, it is excellent, but he need not, if he doesnot feel competent. Just by following the Vinaya strictly he is teaching the people how to restrain their desires and how to live a simple, contented lifein accordance with the Dhamma.