The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

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Lal
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal »

It is important to understand that not all sankhara are bad and need to be avoided.

As long as one lives, one has to not only breathe but go about one’s daily activities which involve MANY kaya sankhara. Any body movement requires kaya sankhara.

That applies to vaci sankhara too. As long as one lives, one has to think conscious thoughts and speak to other people.

What needs to be avoided are any type of sankhara done with “bad intention (cetana).”
- For example, if one raises an arm to hit someone, that is a kāyasaṅkhāra done with BAD kāyasañcetanā (and it is a BAD kāyasaṅkhāra).
- if one raises an arm to give money to a beggar, that is a kāyasaṅkhāra done with GGOD kāyasañcetanā (and it is a GOOD kāyasaṅkhāra).
- if one raises an arm to get a glass of water to drink, that is a kāyasaṅkhāra done with a NEUTRAL kāyasañcetanā (and it is a NEUTRAL kāyasaṅkhāra with no kammic consequences).
- The first two are also called abhisankhara, and they have kammic consequences. The last one is just a sankhara.

The Buddha said,” Kāyasañcetanā kāyasaṅkhāro, vacīsañcetanā vacīsaṅkhāro, manosañcetanā manosaṅkhāro
- It is those sankhara done with “sancetana” that need to be avoided. Here sancetana comes from “san” + “cetana”, or “defiled intention.” That means those done with greed, anger, or ignorance of the Four Noble Truths.
- What is meant by "san" has been discussed in several earlier posts, including, "San" is not clear? This may be helpful if one has an open mind", Feb 26, 2019 (p. 71)
auto
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by auto »

Lal wrote: Thu Oct 03, 2019 12:24 am Is that just a comment? I am not sure what is meant by that. If there is a question, what is the question?
its an argument. If you haven't noticed then what i say is assāsapassāsā is what conditions kaya therefore assāsapassāsā is kayasankhara.
Lal wrote: Thu Oct 03, 2019 12:24 am - Breathing is due to kaya sankhara, but breathing does not have kammic consequences.
if breath is kayasankhara then according to you - breathing is due breathing.

So but it comes out you don't think breath is kayasankhara:
Lal wrote: Mon Sep 30, 2019 5:42 pm We do things with the body based on thoughts and those are kaya sankhara.
You think thoughts what cause body to do things are kayasankhara. Also what you say: "Sankhara are our thoughts"
Lal wrote: Thu Oct 03, 2019 12:24 am If there is a question, what is the question?
I think what you say can't be implemented in reality, it is broken.
Lal
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal »

auto wrote:
You think thoughts what cause body to do things are kayasankhara. Also what you say: "Sankhara are our thoughts"
To be precise, sankharā are IN our thoughts. Sankharā arise with our thoughts.
If sankharā are not in our thoughts, what are they?

Anyway, each person is entitled to his/her opinion. I have no more comments on this particular issue unless I see a logical answer to my above question.
One needs to explain what the Buddha meant by ” Kāyasañcetanā kāyasaṅkhāro, vacīsañcetanā vacīsaṅkhāro, manosañcetanā manosaṅkhāro”
auto
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by auto »

Lal wrote: Thu Oct 03, 2019 2:40 pm auto wrote:
You think thoughts what cause body to do things are kayasankhara. Also what you say: "Sankhara are our thoughts"
To be precise, sankharā are IN our thoughts. Sankharā arise with our thoughts.
If sankharā are not in our thoughts, what are they?
thoughts are vacisankhara because they incline towards breaking out as speech.
Lal wrote: Thu Oct 03, 2019 2:40 pm One needs to explain what the Buddha meant by ” Kāyasañcetanā kāyasaṅkhāro, vacīsañcetanā vacīsaṅkhāro, manosañcetanā manosaṅkhāro”
sañcetanā = craving
Kāyasañcetanā = bodily craving
Kāyasañcetanā kāyasaṅkhāro = breath is bodies craving
vacīsañcetanā vacīsaṅkhāro - thoughts are oral craving
manosañcetanā manosaṅkhāro - perceptionalfeelings are minds craving
SarathW
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by SarathW »

:goodpost: Auto

I tried to discuss this in the following post.
Please make your comments in my post as well.
viewtopic.php?f=44&t=35367
“As the lamp consumes oil, the path realises Nibbana”
auto
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Joined: Thu Dec 21, 2017 12:02 pm

Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by auto »

Lal wrote: Sat Nov 03, 2018 9:45 am 3. However, vitakka and vicāra involve defiled thoughts or at least thoughts about getting things done to live this life.

- When one generates thoughts that specifically do not involve kāma rāga or other akusala -- but the opposites (nekkhamma/kusala) -- those are called savitakka and savicāra.
- That is how one gets into jhāna: By eliminating (or suppressing) vitakka/vicāra and cultivating savitakka/savicāra.
- This is clearly seen in any sutta that describe jhāna. For example, in “Tapussa Sutta (AN 9.41)“: “..So kho ahaṃ, ānanda, vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharāmi.” When one is a jhāna, vitakka/vicāra with kāma rāga/akusala are absent and only savitakka/savicāra will be present.
- In the above verse, “vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi” means kāma rāga/akusala are absent in the mind while in jhāna.
that's cool.

the savitakka and savicara. The sa refer to wholesome? kusala? i wonder what wholesome means..
Lal
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal »

auto wrote:
i wonder what wholesome means..
Wholesome means moral or good. In the case of cultivating jhana, they must be devoid of kama raga.
- When one is cultivating Ariya jhana, one must focus on savitakka/savicara.
- One CANNOT attain jhana with sensual thoughts in the mind.
- Of course, anariya (or non-Ariya or non-Buddhist) jhana can be cultivated with neutral thought objects, like the breath.
Lal
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Joined: Thu Jun 23, 2016 11:39 am

Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal »

I am posting two writeups today.

Kāma Guṇa – Origin of Attachment (Tanhā)

Kāma guṇa are pleasurable things in this world. It is because of kāma guṇa that we tend to attach (tanhā) to worldly things via either greed or anger (based on ignorance.) Based on kāma guṇa we AUTOMATICALLY generate sāmisa vēdanā. Those sāmisa vēdanā, in turn, COULD lead to tanhā (attachment to worldly things.)

Summary of the Previous Post

1. In the previous post, we first categorized vēdanā into two types: vipāka vēdanā and samphassa-jā-vēdanā.

- Then, later in the post, we categorized vēdanā differently. Those vēdanā felt in the physical body (kāya) are kāyika vēdanā. All other vēdanā types arise in mind, and they are cetasika vēdanā. Of course, vipāka vēdanā can be kāyika vēdanā or cetasika vēdanā. However, samphassa-jā-vēdanā are all cetasika vēdanā.

- Then kāyika vēdanā can be three types: dukkha vēdanā, sukha vēdanā, adukkhamasukha vēdanā.
- One may need to review that post: “Vipāka Vēdanā and “Samphassa jā Vēdanā” in a Sensory Event.”

A Few Observations Based on the Previous Post

2. Now I need to add a few more comments. First, those kāyika vēdanā are all vipāka vēdanā. Those are the ones that contribute to physical suffering (injuries, sicknesses, etc.) and bodily comforts (like in a body massage.) Therefore, dukkha vēdanā, sukha vēdanā, and adukkhama asukha vēdanā are all vipāka vēdanā, and they arise only with “bodily contacts” (kāyañca paṭicca phoṭṭhabbe ca uppajjati kāyaviññāṇaṃ.)

- All other types of vipāka vēdanā come through eyes ears, nose, tongue, and the mind. Unlike vipāka vēdanā that come through the physical body, they are NOT kāyika vēdanā.
- Those are, at that moment, all upekkhā vēdanā. We see, hear, smell, taste, or dhammā comes to the mind. They are, “Cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṃ, sōtañca paṭicca sadde ca uppajjati sotaviññāṇaṃ, ghānañca paṭicca gandhe ca uppajjati ghānaviññāṇaṃ, jivhāñca paṭicca rase ca uppajjati jivhāviññāṇaṃ, and manañca paṭicca dhamme ca uppajjati manoviññāṇaṃ.” Note that “kāyañca paṭicca phoṭṭhabbe ca uppajjati kāyaviññāṇaṃ” does NOT appear here.
- Then, samphassa-jā-vēdanā arise following those initial vipāka vēdanā. For example, following hearing a sound (sōtañca paṭicca sadde ca uppajjati sotaviññāṇaṃ), two more steps take place before samphassa-jā-vēdanā arise. They are in the “Chachakka Sutta (MN 148): “sōtañca paṭicca sadde ca uppajjati sotaviññāṇaṃ, tiṇṇaṃ saṅgati phasso, phassa paccayā vedanā.” As we discussed In the previous post, phassa paccayā vedanā is samphassa-jā-vēdanā. Those are vēdanā that arise due to greed, anger, and ignorance.
- Now, in this post, we will discuss that last step in detail. Why do humans get attached to some sensory inputs via greed and to others via aversion (dislike)?

What Are Kāma Guṇa?

3. The Buddha said that this world is filled with eye-pleasing sights, ear-pleasing sounds, etc. for all five physical senses. Each existence in the kāma lōka has its own set of “attractive and enticing sensory objects.” The Buddha called them kāmaguṇa or “sensual qualities.” As we know, kāma means sensual. Guna” means “qualities” or “characteristics.” Even though kāmaguṇa is one word in the Tipitaka, I like to write it as two words, “kāma guṇa” since that helps remember the meaning.

- For example, humans like certain types of food. Each animal species has its own “favorite foods.” Lions and tigers like to eat meat. Cows don’t eat meat, and they eat grass. Pigs like to eat all sorts of rotten food.
- As humans, we enjoy certain sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and bodily contacts. As long as one has a human body, it is not possible to avoid generating a sukha vēdanā due to such sensory contacts. Even Arahants feel those.

Kāma Guṇa Are Enticing Objects, Sounds, Tastes, Odors, and Bodily Contacts

4. Such sukha vēdanā arise immediately AFTER the initial vipāka vēdanā. As we discussed in the previous post, all vipāka vēdanā due to sensory contacts other than bodily contacts are upekkhā vēdanā. They are neutral.

- However, immediately following that initial contact, kāma guṇa comes into play. Many suttas discuss kāma guṇa, and they all have the following clarification of what it is. The “Nibbānasukha Sutta (AN 9.34),” states, “Pañcime, bhikkhave, kāmaguṇā. Katame pañca? Cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā, sotaviññeyyā saddā, ghānaviññeyyā gandhā, jivhāviññeyyā rasā, kāyaviññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā, iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā. Ime kho, bhikkhave, pañca kāmaguṇā.”
- Translated: “There are these five types of sensual qualities (kāmaguṇa). Which five? There are forms (rūpā) experienced with eyes that are agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, enticing, and leading to desire. There are sounds (sadda) that are agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, enticing, and leading to desire (and similarly for the other three senses.)

Vedanā Due to Kāma Guṇa Are Not “samphassa-jā-vedanā

5. However, this sōmanassa vēdanā that arises due to kāma guṇa are NOT the “samphassa-jā-vēdanā.” Somanassa vēdanā due to kāma guṇa arises in an Arahant, as well as in an average human.

- Let us clarify with some examples. Sugar or honey has a “kāma guna” of sweetness. That holds for everyone from an average person to an Arahant. A beautiful woman will be seen as such by anyone from an ordinary person to an Arahant.
- However, “tiṇṇaṃ saṅgati phasso, phassa paccayā vedanā” in #2 above does not occur in an Arahant. Even though an Arahant will experience sōmanassa vēdanā due to kāma guṇa, an Arahant would NOT get attached to that “pleasant/sensual feeling.”
- Therefore, even though an Arahant would feel the tastiness of honey, he/she would not generate any craving for more. An Arahant has comprehended that desire for ANY worldly pleasures (sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and body touches) will only lead to future suffering. But it is essential to realize that one CANNOT and SHOULD NOT suppress such desires with sheer will power. That understanding comes after the Sōtapanna stage.

Vedanā Due to Kāma Guṇa Are Sāmisa Vedanā

6. There is a unique name for those “automatically-arising” vēdanā due to kāma guna. They are sāmisa vēdanā.

- The word sāmisa has origins in the keyword “āmisa,” which means “associated with the sensual world” or “kāma lōka.” Thus, sāmisa sukha vēdanā mean a “pleasant feeling” that arises due to the nature of the kāma lōka.
- An Arahant, as well as an average human, will experience similar “sāmisa vēdanā.” Any sensory event of kāma lōka is a sāmisa vēdanā. We will briefly discuss the types of sāmisa vēdanā below.
- We remember that the original viññāna (cakkhu, sōta, ghāna, jivhā, kāya) resulted due to a vipāka. Vipaka vēdanā associated with those are upekkhā vēdanā. (The only exception was kāya viññāna, which could give rise to dukkha, sukha, or adukkhamasukha vēdanā.)
- Immediately following those vipaka vēdanā, kāma guna comes into play, and sāmisa vēdanā arises automatically.
- It is only after the generation of sāmisa vēdanā that “tiṇṇaṃ saṅgati phasso, phassa paccayā vedanā” comes into play.

Kāma Rāga Is Getting Attached to Sāmisa Vedanā

7. The human world is full of enticing sights, sounds, tastes, odors, and bodily comforts. Those are not kāma. They are kāma guna. Getting attached to them and cultivating kāma sankappa (or vaci sankhāra or vitakka/vicāra) is kāma (and kāma rāga).

- The “Nibbedhika Sutta (AN 6.63)” states, “Saṅkappa rāgō purisassa kāmō, Nete kāmā yāni citrāni lōkē..”.
Translated: “A person’s kāma is getting attached and thinking about (sankappa rāga) those pleasing things in this world (citrāni lōkē). Those beautiful things in the world are not kāma.”
- More details in the accompanying post “Kāma Guna, Kāma, Kāma Rāga, Kāmaccanda.” It has more information that will help understand the concepts better.

Difference Between Samphassa-jā-Vedanā and Sāmisa Vedana

8. Now we can see the difference between samphassa-jā-vedanā and sāmisa vēdanā.

- First, sāmisa vēdanā are common to ALL HUMANS, including Arahants. They are the sweetness of sugar or pleasing odors like perfumes.
- On the other hand, samphassa-jā-vedanā are highly PERSONAL. They do not arise in Arahants. For others, how strongly they arise depends on one’s gati AND the specific ārammana.
- We also need to understand that samphassa-jā-vedanā arise BECAUSE OF sāmisa vēdanā. One gets attached to sensory inputs because they are enticing. As long as one does not see the “hidden suffering” in those enticing sights, sounds, etc., one is bound to generate craving for them.
- Getting attached to ārammana is “tanhā.” One can get attached via greed, anger, or ignorance. Let us discuss that briefly since it is crucial.

Tanhā – Getting Attached via Greed, Anger, or Ignorance

9. Just like there are “pleasing and enticing things” in the kāma lōka, there are also “unpleasant things.” For example, rotten food tastes terrible, and we do not like loud or high-pitched noises. Humans generate sāmisa dukkha vēdanā when exposed to such sensory inputs or ārammana.

- Nonetheless, we get “attached” to them also. We complain about gad tasting foods or harsh noises and may take actions to avoid them.
- That is why “tanhā” means “getting attached to ārammana via either greed or anger.” We also get attached to ārammana due to ignorance, not knowing the true nature of them. See, “Tanhā – How We Attach Via Greed, Hate, and Ignorance.”https://puredhamma.net/key-hidden-dhamm ... ignorance/
- We get attached via greed and ignorance DUE TO sāmisa sukha vēdanā and sāmisa upekkhā vēdanā. It is essential to realize that while everyone feels sāmisa vēdanā, not everyone attaches via sāmisa vēdanā the same way.

Samphassa-jā-Vedanā Depend on One’s Gati And The Specific Ārammana

10. We have already discussed how samphassa-jā-vedanā arise due to one’s character/habits (gati) and specific ārammana. See, “Vipāka Vēdanā and “Samphassa jā Vēdanā” in a Sensory Event.”

- An Arahant does not have any gati left (other than those without kammic consequences), and thus would not generate tanhā and, therefore, would not generate samphassa-jā-vedanā.
- All others attach to ārammana in different ways and at different levels. Whether one attaches to a ārammana depends on that particular ārammana AND one’s gati. For example, teenagers are likely to gati to attach to loud music, whereas an older adult may dislike such music. In each category of food, odors, sex, etc. some people attach more than others.
- It is essential to avoid “bad ārammana.” If one associates with those who drink excessively or are engaged in drug use, it is hard to avoid getting involved with such activities.
- In the same way, it is easier to cultivate good habits (gati) by associating with those who already have good gati. Then one will mostly be exposed to “good ārammana.”

Summary

11. So far, we have discussed the progression of events when a sensory input comes in per “Chachakka Sutta (MN 148).” For example, when an external object is the ārammana, the series of events start with, “Cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṃ.” At that initial stage, it is just a vipāka viññāna. See, “Contact Between Āyatana Leads to Vipāka Viññāna.” Then in the subsequent posts, we have been discussing the progression, “Cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhu viññāṇaṃ, tiṇṇaṃ saṅgati phasso, phassa paccayā vedanā.” Now we can summarize those steps as follows.

- First, a ārammana (in this case, a visual object) catches one’s attention with a vipāka viññāna. In this case, it is a cakkhuviññāṇa.
- Immediately, kāma guna comes into play, and one experiences a sāmisa sukha vēdanā if it is a mind-pleasing object. That happens whether one is an average human or an Arahant.
- Then the next part of the above verse, “tiṇṇaṃ saṅgati phasso, phassa paccayā vedanā” happens in mind (within a fraction of a second.) One’s “san gati” come into play. If one has a tendency to be attracted to that particular type of object, then one would attach to that object. If it was an object that one truly dislikes, one would generate sāmisa dukkha vēdanā and would still attach with dislike or anger.
- Now, another average human MAY NOT get attached either way. That is because that particular ārammana may not be his/her “type,” i.e., he/she may not have an interest in it. On the other hand, an Arahant WILL NOT get attached (via like, dislike, or ignorance) to ANY ārammana.

The next post provides more details.
Last edited by Lal on Mon Oct 07, 2019 11:34 am, edited 2 times in total.
Lal
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal »

This is the second of the two writeups today.

Kāma Guna, Kāma, Kāma Rāga, Kāmaccandha

Introduction

1. It is essential to understand the meaning of each term. The “defilement level” increases in the given order from kāma to kāmaccandha.

2. In kāma lōka, we experience five types of physical sense inputs: pictures (rūpa rūpa), sounds, smells, tastes, and body touches. There are inherent “qualities” for each of these called “kāma guna.” Those are common to all of us in kāma lōka. They also depend on “bhava” and thus differ from humans to each type of animal; see below.

- For example, all of us experience the sourness of lemon or sweetness of sugar (there may be defects in some people due to kamma vipāka).
- We all experience the unpleasantness of thunder or the pleasantness of music.
- While there could be minor differences, all humans experience the same basic “qualities” or “kāma guna” through the five physical senses. Even when one becomes an Arahant, that will not change.

Realms in Kāma Lōka and Two Brahma Lōkā

3. The 31 realms naturally exist to provide different levels of kamma vipāka according to the (abhi)sankhāra done in previous lives (mainly in the human realm.)

- The lowest four realms in kāma lōka (apāyas) have conditions that induce excessive suffering. Higher two realms in kāma lōka have rūpa rūpa, sadda, gandha, rasa, and pottabba that provide increasingly higher levels of “pleasures.”
- The rūpavācara Brahma realms have rūpavācara jhānic pleasures; those Brahmas had given up kāma rāga and had cultivated rūpavācara jhānas in previous human lives.
- Those in arūpavācara Brahma realms had given up both kāma rāga and rūpa rāga and had cultivated arūpavācara jhāna in previous human lives.
- That is why kāma guna is absent in both rūpavācara and arūpavācara Brahma realms. Those who are born in those realms had given up sense pleasures for jhānic pleasures.

What Are Kāma Guṇa?

4. Therefore, there are pleasing things in our kāma lōka (human realm) that naturally arise to provide sense pleasures according to abhisankhāra that led to births here. We all had craved sense pleasures in our previous lives but had cultivated strong punna abhisankhāra. Those who developed strong apunna abhisankhāra (i.e., did immoral deeds to get such sense pleasures) are now in the apāyas.

- Thus, as humans, we are naturally exposed to those “kāma guna.” We are naturally “exposed to” sense objects that are “pleasing” to the five physical senses.
- Thus, if one has not comprehended the Tilakkhana, then it is natural for one to get attached to such “pleasurable things.” Then one perceives that things in this world — including those things with kāma guna — can provide long-term happiness. But in reality, such cravings lead to suffering because those “pleasures” are not sustainable.

Kāma Rāga – Attachment to Kāma Guṇa via Saṅkappa Rāga

5. Now, if a person gets attached to those sensory inputs with kāma guna and starts generating sensual thoughts (i.e., vaci sankhāra), that leads to “kāma” or kāma rāga. Generating sensual thoughts is also called saṅkappa rāga (creating Saṅkappa that leads to samsāric journey). A sutta reference is in #15 below.

- When one engages in saṅkappa rāga (i.e., thinking greedy thoughts about such sense pleasures) that is generating vaci sankhāra. One is then likely to initiate kāya sankhāra, too (start engaging in related physical activities.)
- That can happen to an average human. It can happen to a lesser extent to a Sōtapanna. That next step of intentionally generating sensual thoughts happens with kāma rāga. That will again reduce at the Sakadāgāmi stage and stopped only at the Anāgāmi stage.
- One cannot force the removal of kāma rāga. It will naturally go away when one changes one’s gati by Anāpāna and Satipathāna.

6. An Anāgami has removed kāma rāga but still has kāma, i.e., likes them somewhat.

- However, kāma of an Anāgāmi is not strong enough to lead to rebirth in the kāma lōka. In other words, an Anāgāmi will not generate abhisankhāra (strong sankhāra) for things with kāma guna (for example would have no desire to engage in sex).
- In the Abhidhammic language, an Anāgāmi has removed four greed-based cittas associated with wrong views. There are still “four greed-based cittas dissociated with wrong views” left. But they have lost much of the potency to move from the kāma to kāma rāga level; see #3 of, “Akusala Citta and Akusala Vipāka Citta.”
- It is only at the Arahant stage that kāma is absent completely.

Kāmaccandha – Being Blinded by Kāma Rāga

7. If not willfully controlled, kāma rāga can intensify to a point where one is capable of committing immoral deeds (hurting others or oneself.) One starts losing control when kāma rāga elevates to the kāmaccandha level, the highest.

- That can happen to anyone below the Sōtapanna stage, i.e., one can be “blinded” by kāma, resulting in kāmaccandha (“kāma” + “icca” + “andha,” where icca is liking, and andha is blind, and thus “blinded by the craving for kāma“).
- Whether an average human will generate kāma, kāma rāga, or kāmaccandha depends on the strength of the sensory input and also on prevalent conditions. For example, if one’s mindset becomes degraded due to alcohol consumption, and one sees an attractive woman in an isolated setting, things could get out-of-control with kāmaccandha.

Kāmaccandha Leads to Rebirth in the Apāyas

8. Immoral actions done with kāmaccandha could lead to rebirth in the apāyas.

- Only kāma rāga –not kāmaccandha — can arise in a Sōtapanna. Thus he/she is released from the apāyas, but not from kāma lōka. A Sōtapanna is incapable of committing an “apāyagāmi deed” to satisfy any sensory pleasure.
- So, I hope you get the basic idea. The above reasoning applies to any of the five physical sense inputs.

Some Examples for Clarification

9. We can clarify with some examples. Sugar has a “kāma guna” of sweetness; that holds for everyone from an average person to an Arahant.

- A beautiful woman will be seen as such by anyone from an average person to an Arahant.
- An average person may generate kāma to kāmaccandha for that woman. A man who rapes a woman has kāmaccandha.
- A Sōtapanna may generate kāma to kāma rāga. But kāmaccandha would not arise in a Sōtapanna.
- An Anāgāmi may generate just kāma (low-level sensual thoughts.) But there is no “kāma rāga anusaya” left. He/she would not have any desire for sex.
- But an Arahant will not generate kāma either.

10. The sight of such a woman is a kamma vipāka. For anyone (from an average person to an Arahant), still living in the human realm will see that she is beautiful.

- If one gets “interested” one generates kāma saṅkappa or vaci sankhāra; see, “Correct Meaning of Vacī Sankhāra.” on Nov 03, 2018 (p.43). Then it could lead to kāya sankhāra, i.e., turn one’s head to looks at her again with kāma rāga or kāmaccandha, that is a new kamma.
- A Sōtapanna still has “kāma rāga anusaya” left in him/her, and that is why he/she will return to the kāma lōka. He/she can be born as a human or dēva in the future.
- A Sakadāgāmi is in between the Sōtapanna and Anāgāmi stages. He/she will be reborn only in the dēva realms.
- Of course, an Anāgāmi will not be reborn anywhere in the kāma lōka since there is no kāma rāga left.

Different Types of Kāma Guṇa for Different Existences

11. Anyone born in the human realm will have similar “kāma guna” because they had cultivated corresponding “human sankhāra.” We all like the same things, and any variations we do have are due to the differences in those main sankhāra types.

- However, “kāma guna” of animals can be much more different compared to humans. There are also many variations among animals.
- Pigs eat very unpleasing things, including feces. Tigers or lions like to eat raw meat. Cows don’t like meat but like grass. The variations are quite apparent. Again those correspond to sankhāra that they had cultivated as humans. Furthermore, each bhava (and jāti) corresponds to such sankhāra via paticca samuppāda. Some of you may be able to see that, but we will discuss this later.
- In Brahma realms, things with kāma guna are absent. They were born in those realms because they had preferred and cultivated jhānic pleasures, instead of craving for sensual pleasures.
- More information in old posts: "Kāmaccandha and Icca – Being Blinded by Cravings", Nov 26, 2018 (p. 50) and "Kāmaccandha Is Not There in Brahma Realms – The Bigger Picture in the 31 Realms", Nov 29, 2018 (p. 50).

12. In that regard, we keep in mind for now that (abhi)sankhāra generated by humans have high javana power, and thus lead to various “bhava” and jāti. Animals cannot generate such citta with high javana power because of their unfortunate birth. That is an important point. Animals pay for such past kamma until that kammic power is exhausted; see, “Javana of a Citta – The Root of Mental Power.”

- Even most dēvas or Brahmas “go with the flow,” i.e., enjoy their kāma or jhānic pleasures that come with their birth, just as animals go through the suffering.
- It is only those dēvas/Brahmas that had become at least Sōtapanna that would be motivated to strive for magga phala.

Only Abhisankhāra Lead to Future Rebirths

13. Therefore, it is mostly humans who can cultivate abhisankhāra (of both types) and thus make conditions for future “good births or bad births.” That is a critical point in the Agganna Sutta.

- All the animals that we see were humans in the beginning. Those with “bad gathi” that had been generated via “bad abhisankhāra” in their deep past, were reborn as various types of animals as the Earth evolved, and conditions for animal life appeared.
- An introduction to Agganna Sutta is at “Buddhism and Evolution – Aggañña Sutta (DN 27)“.

Five Kinds of Kāma Guṇa

14. Now let us briefly discuss a key sutta that is relevant. The “Nibbedhika Sutta (AN 6.63)” lists the five kāma guna:
“..Pañcime, bhikkhave, kāmaguṇā—cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā, sotaviññeyyā saddā … ghānaviññeyyā gandhā … jivhāviññeyyā rasā … kāyaviññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā. Api ca kho, bhikkhave, nete kāmā kāmaguṇā..”

Translated: “..Bhikkhus, there are five types with characteristics of sensuality (kāma guna). Which five? Forms are cognizable via the eye—agreeable, pleasing, charming, likable, desire-inducing, enticing. Sounds are cognizable via the ear. Aromas cognizable via the nose. Flavors cognizable via the tongue. Body sensations cognizable via the body—agreeable, pleasing, charming, likable, desire-inducing, enticing. But, Bhikkhus, these are not sensuality (kāma)..”.
- I have translated “guna” as “characteristics,” but “qualities” would work too.

Kāma Different From Kāma Guṇa

15. Then the next verse of the sutta says what kāma is: “Saṅkappa rāgō purisassa kāmō, Nete kāmā yāni citrāni lōkē..”.

Translated: “a person’s kāma is getting attached and thinking about (sankappa rāga) those pleasing things in this world (citrani lōkē).” Those beautiful things in the world are not kāma.” Here, “citrāni lōkē” means “a world full of delightful things”.

To emphasize: There are many pleasing, delightful, enticing things in the kāma lōka. Just experiencing them is not kāma. One who has understood the real nature does not get attached to them. But those who do not yet understand the real anicca nature of things in the kāma lōka, value them highly. They crave them, and get a satisfaction (kāma assāda) by thinking about them (generating kāma Saṅkappa or vaci sankhāra) or vitakka/vicara; that is kāma.
- It is essential to realize that conscious thinking or “talking to oneself” is vaci sankhāra; see, “Correct Meaning of Vacī Sankhāra.“ Thus, one who does that has saṅkappa rāga.
- Such vaci sankhāra can then lead to kāya sankhāra, whereby one takes actions to fulfill such desires (if one has kāma rāga anusaya).
- Some people go one step further and commit akusala kamma to fulfill such desires (then it becomes kāmaccandha).

Saṅkappa Rāga Is Kāma

16. Therefore, anyone in the kāma lōka will experience kāma guna. It is a natural outcome of being in the kāma lōka. It is the tendency to think about them on a regular basis and enjoy that with saṅkappa rāga that elevates to kāma. A higher level of kāma is kāma rāga.

- Giving up that craving comes only with an understanding of the true nature (the anicca, dukkha, anatta nature), i.e., realize that they have adverse consequences; see, “How Perceived Pleasures (Assāda) lead to Dukkha” and “Assāda, Ādīnava, Nissarana – Introduction.”
- Getting to the Sōtapanna stage means one has understood the dangers of kāma assāda. As long as one has cravings for them, one would still have them. However, a Sōtapanna will never do an immoral act to gain those sense pleasures.
- For a Sōtapanna to be free from such kāma assāda, he/she needs to contemplate the dangers (ādīnava) of kāma assāda as we discussed in the above two posts. That is the “asubha bhāvanā.“

What Is Asubha Bhāvanā?

17. Many people misinterpret the asubha bhāvanā as to contemplate on disgusting things like rotting dead bodies. That is entirely wrong; such meditations only lead to patigha or “friction of the mind.”

- Instead, one needs to contemplate on the fact that the cause of future suffering is getting attached to those pleasing sensual things. One needs to see the unfruitful (asubha) nature of those things with kāma guna. Real asubha (detrimental) things are those eye-pleasing, ear-pleasing, …body-pleasing things in this kāma lōka. See, “How Perceived Pleasures (Assāda) lead to Dukkha.”
- Therefore, it is not even possible to do the asubha bhāvanā correctly until one gets to the Sōtapanna stage. It is only then one begins to see the dangers in craving for sense pleasures.
- However, it is always good to cut down on sense pleasures, even while striving for the Sōtapanna stage. It makes one’s mind calm and susceptible to grasp more profound concepts.
- Extreme sense pleasures are a burden to the mind. It is possible to avoid those right now; see, “Satipattana Sutta – Relevance to Suffering in This Life.” Doing everything in moderation naturally leads to a simpler, healthier, and peaceful life.

Next Post

18. It took us a few posts to cover that short phrase, "Cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhu viññāṇaṃ, tiṇṇaṃ saṅgati phasso.” in the Chachakka Sutta (MN 148), but I think it is essential to get these basic ideas clarified. It may not take that long to go through the rest of the sutta.

- Another essential point from the discussion so far is that sensory events are discrete. They do not come in continuously. The mind handles ONE ārammana at a time. However, since the mind is very fast, it APPEARS that we are seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and feeling body touches all at the same time.
- In the next post, we will discuss this critical point.
2600htz
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by 2600htz »

Hello Lal :

Do you have some article about "the eight causes of earthquakes" ? (Sutta DN 16).
It would be fun to read your scientific approach.

Regards.
SarathW
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by SarathW »

auto wrote: Fri Oct 04, 2019 2:25 pm
Lal wrote: Sat Nov 03, 2018 9:45 am 3. However, vitakka and vicāra involve defiled thoughts or at least thoughts about getting things done to live this life.

- When one generates thoughts that specifically do not involve kāma rāga or other akusala -- but the opposites (nekkhamma/kusala) -- those are called savitakka and savicāra.
- That is how one gets into jhāna: By eliminating (or suppressing) vitakka/vicāra and cultivating savitakka/savicāra.
- This is clearly seen in any sutta that describe jhāna. For example, in “Tapussa Sutta (AN 9.41)“: “..So kho ahaṃ, ānanda, vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharāmi.” When one is a jhāna, vitakka/vicāra with kāma rāga/akusala are absent and only savitakka/savicāra will be present.
- In the above verse, “vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi” means kāma rāga/akusala are absent in the mind while in jhāna.
that's cool.

the savitakka and savicara. The sa refer to wholesome? kusala? i wonder what wholesome means..
Please refer to the previous discussion about the meaning of Savitakka Savicara.

viewtopic.php?f=13&t=31019&p=453196&hil ... ka#p453196
“As the lamp consumes oil, the path realises Nibbana”
Lal
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal »

2600htz wrote: Thu Oct 10, 2019 11:21 pm Do you have some article about "the eight causes of earthquakes" ? (Sutta DN 16).
It would be fun to read your scientific approach.
Sorry. I have not written an article about that.
- You could be specifically referring to the causes that involve the Buddha, like, "5) Furthermore, Ānanda, when the Realised One perfectly awakens to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening, this Earth moves, wavers, flutters, and shakes. This is the fifth reason, the fifth cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake."

You may be looking for a "scientifically-compatible explanation." I have not thought about that issue.
- Some phenomena like that may not be possible to explain with CURRENT scientific knowledge.
- But some phenomena in the Tipitaka that did not have explanations in science a few hundred years ago have been shown to be compatible with modern science. For example, even a hundred years ago, science did not agree with the Buddha that there are an uncountable number of planetary systems in the universe. But now we know that it is correct.
- So, with time, we will see more and more such phenomena to be compatible as science makes progress.
SarathW
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by SarathW »

the savitakka and savicara. The sa refer to wholesome? kusala? ..
I think Lal is incorrect.
I created a new post.

viewtopic.php?f=23&t=35446
“As the lamp consumes oil, the path realises Nibbana”
Lal
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal »

SarathW wrote: Fri Oct 11, 2019 3:44 am
the savitakka and savicara. The sa refer to wholesome? kusala? ..
I think Lal is incorrect.
We cannot interpret the Tipitaka the way we want. Any interpretation needs to be consistent with the suttas in the Tipitaka.

1. First, vitakka/vicara are vaci sankhara.
- From the Culavedalla Sutta (MN 44): “Katamo panāyye, kāyasaṅkhāro, katamo vacīsaṅkhāro, katamo cittasaṅkhāro”ti?

“Assāsapassāsā kho, āvuso visākha, kāyasaṅkhāro, vitakkavicārā vacīsaṅkhāro, saññā ca vedanā ca cittasaṅkhāro”ti
.

2. From Niramisa Sutta (SN 36.31): "Katamañca, bhikkhave, nirāmisaṃ sukhaṃ? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati."

- One gets to the first Ariya jhana by getting rid of kama and akusala thoughts, AND by cultivating kusala thoughts (savitakka/savicara).
- One can get to the first anariya (non-Buddhist) jhana by just getting rid of kama and akusala thoughts (as with breath meditation.)
- However, vitakka/vicara do not completely go away in the first jhana of either type.

3. Then per same sutta, in the second jhana, any remaining vitakka/vicara are stopped ("Vitak­ka­vicārā­naṃ vūpasamā"). That is also what is meant by "avitakka/avicara":
" Vitak­ka­vicārā­naṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati."

4. However, savitakka/savicara remain after the second jhana. Thus one can think "good, moral thoughts" (i.e., dhamma concepts) after the second jhana. Only defiled vitakka/viacara are completely stopped in the second jhana.

If any evidence to the contrary can be presented from the Tipitaka, I can respond.
auto
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by auto »

Lal wrote: Fri Oct 11, 2019 11:22 am 2. From Niramisa Sutta (SN 36.31): "Katamañca, bhikkhave, nirāmisaṃ sukhaṃ? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati."

- One gets to the first Ariya jhana by getting rid of kama and akusala thoughts, AND by cultivating kusala thoughts (savitakka/savicara).
savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ = kāma and akusala dhamma. Logic is here, you are quite secluded from kāma and akusala dhamma and as a result the vaci/speech is ceased.
The extra notion is on kāma and akusala dhamma, these has to be up otherwise you don't have anything to stop; you won't have the urge to speak up or act.

at 2nd jhana, sanna and manasikara what is connected to kāma and akusala dhamma is defilement, defiling, assailing, so the vitakkavicara needs be ceased, that the sanna and manasikara would be free.

I was interested in the prefix or whatever it is sa, and i now think it is referring to sanna and manasikara. At 2nd it is just vitakkavicara, because sanna and manasikara is freed from savitakka savicara.
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