The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

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auto
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by auto » Sun Oct 13, 2019 1:27 pm

lal,

what you think of vi in vitakka and vicara? does it refer to both good and bad dhamma and sensual activity. Then the sa makes vitakka to mean good thoughts?

Lal
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal » Sun Oct 13, 2019 5:19 pm

auto wrote:
Sun Oct 13, 2019 1:27 pm
lal,
what you think of vi in vitakka and vicara? does it refer to both good and bad dhamma and sensual activity. Then the sa makes vitakka to mean good thoughts?
I don't have much time today to respond in detail. But you can get the basic idea from the following:

DN 33:
Tayo akusalavitakkā—kāmavitakko, byāpādavitakko, vihiṃsāvitakko. (5)

Tayo kusalavitakkā—nekkham­ma­vitakko, abyāpā­da­vitakko, avihiṃ­sā­vitakko. (6)


Akusalavitakkā are just vitakka.
Kusalavitakkā are savitakka.

Further evidence from SN 43.12:
"Katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅ­kha­ta­gāmi­maggo? Savitakko savicāro samādhi. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asaṅ­kha­ta­gāmi­maggo … pe … katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅ­kha­ta­gāmi­maggo? Avitakko vicāramatto samādhi. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asaṅ­kha­ta­gāmi­maggo … pe … katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅ­kha­ta­gāmi­maggo? Avitakko avicāro samādhi. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asaṅ­kha­ta­gāmi­maggo … pe …. (1.3–5.)

Here, asaṅ­kha­ta­gāmi­maggo is the way to Nibbana. Asaṅ­kha­ta is Nibbana.

Lal
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal » Mon Oct 14, 2019 10:49 am

Vision Is a Series of “Snapshots” – Movie Analogy

Vision – How Do We See an Object?

1. Vision or “seeing” appears to us as continuous. We see people moving around, vehicles moving, animals running around, etc. However, in reality, “seeing” happens due to a series of “snapshots” that our physical eyes take. Please bear with me as I set the stage with the following Pāli terms. It is not necessary to know these Pāli terms in detail, but try to get the basic idea.

- A key idea behind Buddha Dhamma is that we experience only one citta (loosely translated as a thought) at a time and that citta is focused on ONE ārammana. In other words, while the mind is registering a visual event, it cannot hear, smell, taste, or feel a touch. The keyword ārammana was introduced in the post, "Vipāka Vēdanā and “Samphassa jā Vēdanā” in a Sensory Event."
- Even when we focus on “seeing,” it does not happen continuously. The mind can process only one cakkhudvāra citta vithi (with 17 cittā) at a time. The mind processes that cakkhudvāra citta vithi with three more manōdvāra citta vithi. At the end of those citta vithi, the mind has captured a ‘snapshot” of the object and recognized it. That is one “snapshot” of a moving object.
- Our “seeing of a moving external object” within a few seconds involves many such “snapshots.” Our perception of a moving object is the result of all those “snapshots.” We do not see the individual “snapshots.”

Movie Analogy – Series of Snapshots

2. We can simplify and understand the above process using an analogy. What I stated above is — in principle — what happens when we watch a movie.

- When making a movie, a video camera captures many static pictures (snapshots) of a scene. Then those snapshots are projected to a screen at a certain rate. If the playback speed is too slow, we can see individual pictures, but above a certain “projection rate”, it looks like real motion. Here is a video that illustrates this well:

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- A movie projector projects static pictures to the screen at a rate of about 30 frames a second, and we see the movie as a continuous progression of events. If the projection rate is low, we can see it frame by frame or as individual “snapshots”. When projected at 30 frames a second, we do not perceive those static pictures. Then we perceive a continuous progression without any gaps.
- That is why the Buddha said that the mind is a magician. We perceive a streamlined world, even though the reality is that our sensory faculties detect only a series of “snapshots,” It is the mind that conceals the reality and gives us a perception of a continuous progression of events.
- It is critical to understand this point. It helps getting rid of sakkāya ditthi, as we will discuss in the next post.

Mind and the Brain – Two Different Entities

3. In an early post on this series, I pointed out that cakkhāyatana is cakkhu pasāda rūpa, not the physical eyes. See, #12 of “Buddhist Worldview – Introduction.”

- That cakkhu pasāda rūpa (or simply cakkhu) is part of the gandhabba, our “mental body.” The gandhabba has the seat of the mind (hadaya vatthu) surrounded by the five pasāda rūpa corresponding to vision, hearing, taste, smell, and touch.
- When our physical eyes capture an image of an external object, that image goes to the visual cortex in the brain. The signal is processed there and then transmitted to the cakkhu pasāda rūpa, which then makes contact with the hadaya vatthu. That contact (phassa) leads to the arising of cakkhu viññāna at the hadaya vatthu. It is important to understand that in the arising of cakkhuviññāṇa, phassa or contact DOES NOT happen at the physical eyes. More details at, “Brain – Interface between Mind and Body.”: https://puredhamma.net/abhidhamma/gandh ... -and-body/
- By the way, that is the step, “cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṃ” discussed in #7 in the post, “Contact Between Āyatana Leads to Vipāka Viññāna.”

4. Therefore, the brain is like a computer that helps convert the image sent by the physical eyes to a form that can be sensed by the hadaya vatthu, the seat of the mind. Therefore, vision involves a somewhat complex process.

- Similar processes take place for the other four physical sensory events. For example, when the physical ears capture a sound, that signal goes to the auditory cortex in the brain for processing. That signal then goes to the sōta pasāda rūpa, which in turn makes contact with hadaya vatthu to transfer. That gives rise to sōta viññāna via, “sōtañca paṭicca sadde ca uppajjati sotaviññāṇaṃ.”

Reviewing the Whole Series Could Be Helpful

5. It may need some effort to understand this sequence of events. But that is really necessary in order to comprehend the overall process before we get to the next post.

- It is a good idea to print all the posts in the subsection, “Worldview of the Buddha” up to now and go over them carefully. There are about eight posts up to now.
- It is not necessary to understand the DETAILS of #6 and #7 below. But it is good to get the general ideas involved. I am providing this information to show that new findings in science are not only compatible with Buddha Dhamma but also help explain the key concepts in Buddha Dhamma.

The Brain Processes Visual Signals at About 30 Frames per Second

6. A recent study has reported that the minimum time needed for recognition of a static picture is about 13 milliseconds (Ref. 1). That means we should be able to see such snapshots projected at 77 frames per second at the highest rate. However, that is probably “pushing it” and not comfortable for the brain to handle. That is probably why movies use a projection rate of about 30 frames per second as mentioned in #2 above.

- It is interesting to note that the time for neural information to reach the brain takes about 15 to 30 milliseconds (References 49, 50 in Ref. 2). Therefore, a projection rate of 30 to 50 frames is compatible with that measurement too.
- A millisecond is a thousandth of a second.

Same Analysis Holds For Other Four Physical Senses

7. A similar set of rules are valid for hearing as well. Another recent study (Ref. 2) found that sounds could be recognized at rates up to 30 sounds per second. That corresponds to a “sound packet” of a duration of about 33 milliseconds that can be detected and recognized.

- However, people speak at a much slower rate of 150 words per minute. That is about 2 words per second, much less than 30 possible words per second that would be possible according to the above study. So, there is no problem with hearing what other people speak, even if someone talks faster than the average rate.
- There are no studies available at this time from science for the other three sensory events (taste, smell, and body touches). But the same process holds for those as well.

Aside – Cognition (Saññā) Requires More Than Detection

The following points (#8, #9) are “asides”. It is information that is not necessary but could help those with familiarity with Abhidhamma.

8. We must keep in mind that “experiencing a sensory input” is much more complex than just receiving that sensory input. For example, the mind needs to not only see an object or hear a sound, but it needs to recognize what it is and also need to generate a vēdanā.

- As an example, when the sound “apple” is heard, the mind needs to know what an “apple” is. Someone who does not speak English would not know what is meant by the word “apple”. But for those who speak English AND have had experience of eating apples would have MEMORIES of those. Therefore, the mind needs to compare the received sensory with past memories to recognize what it is!
- The mind does that very fast with the help of the manasikāra cētasika. As you may know, manasikāra is one of the seven universal cētasika that arises with each citta. Thus, the mind is able to recognize a sensory input instantaneously, as soon as it receives a “data packet.”

Aside – Process In Abhidhamma Language

9. Actual “seeing” or vision takes place at hadaya vatthu. Same for the other four types of sensory events. For example, let us consider a “packet of data” sent from the physical eye to the brain. The brain processes that information and transmits to the cakkhu pasāda. As you may remember, the five pasāda rupā (cakkhu, sōta, ghāna, jivhā, kāya) surround the hadaya vatthu. Now the cakkhu pasāda makes contact with the hadaya vatthu by hitting it. That causes the hadaya vatthu to vibrate 17 times, much like a gong hit by an iron rod vibrating for a certain fixed number of times.

- The 17 vibrations of the hadaya vatthu correspond to the 17 cittā in a citta vithi. Such a citta vithi is a pancadvāra citta vithi because one of the five physical senses or pancadvāra (“panca” or five + “dvāra” or “door”) initiates it.
- Imagine a blade clamped at one edge and hit on the un-clamped side. The blade will vibrate. It vibrates for a certain FIXED number of times. For a given material, that number is fixed. The same thing happens when a pasāda rūpa makes contact with the hadaya vatthu. The hadaya vatthu vibrates 17 times, with each vibration leading to the arising of a citta. That is the origin of a citta vithi with 17 cittā. Those 17 vibrations are a form of energy called a hadaya rūpa.

10. The misconception that any rūpa has a lifetime of 17 thought moments arose because of not understanding the difference between a rūpa (which is the image of an external object) and a hadaya rūpa (which is just the 17 vibrations of the hadaya vatthu).

- In other words, this information packet is received and processed by the hadaya vatthu within those 17 cittā. The information is complete by the fourth citta (fourth vibration of the hadaya vatthu) and then the rest of the citta in that citta vithi deal with this information. Three more citta vithi run by the hadaya vatthu itself completes the process. Those additional citta vithi, initiated by the mind, are manōdvara citta vithi. Here, manōdvara means the “mind-door.”
- Details of #9 and #10 at, “Does any Object (Rupa) Last only 17 Thought Moments?.”: https://puredhamma.net/abhidhamma/gandh ... t-moments/

The mind is Fast But the Brain is Slow

11. Thus we can see that there is a vast difference in time between the two processes involved. The physical body acquiring data takes the time of the order of 10 milliseconds. The mind processing that information within a billionth of a second (using one pancadvāra citta vithi and three manōdvara citta vithi.)

- Even if the five senses keep sending data continuously, the mind is “just sitting there” most of the time. Let us examine this in a bit detail: Suppose the brain keeps sending data from the eye non-stop. Since each “packet” takes, say ten milliseconds, then in a second, there will be 100 “data packets” of vision coming in. If the brain is going at full speed, it can send at most 500 (=100×5) “data packets” from all five physical senses in a second. Then the mind will be spending less than a millionth of a second in processing all that data. During a movie that lasts two hours, the mind will be active probably less than a second in total. Of course, this is a very simple analysis and the actual values could be higher, especially when taking into account the interaction of dhammā with the mind directly, i.e., “manañca paṭicca dhamme ca uppajjati manoviññāṇaṃ.”
- During those gaps, the hadaya vatthu also interacts (both ways) with the mana indriya in the brain. In particular, it gives instructions to the brain (via mana indriya) on how to control the physical body in response to the sensory inputs.
- Thus, the mind (or more precisely the hadaya vatthu) is just sitting there most of the time. That “idle state” of the mind is the “bhavānga” state.
- A key point here is that the mind spends only a VERY SHORT TIME experiencing the SENSORY INPUTS. There is no “self” watching a movie. However, the mind gives the illusion that there is a “self” watching the movie.
- The above is a very brief discussion. Of course, there are more details, but one can hopefully get the basic idea. Please ask questions if something is not clear. It is critical to understand this post.

Summary

12. The critical point embedded in the Chachakka Sutta (MN 148) is that there is no “self” experiencing the external world. We have been discussing the initial steps in sensory events addressed by that sutta.

- The key message in the sutta is that the mind DOES NOT experience the external world CONTINUOUSLY. Instead, the mind is active only for very brief periods of time when receiving inputs from the five pasāda rūpa. As we above it is the brain that is “on” much longer than the mind. Once the brain processes information packets, the mind absorbs that information within a “blink of an eye.”
- On the other hand, the brain has a heavy workload while watching a movie. It has to process audio and video inputs at a rapid rate for the duration of the movie. One could get a headache if one watches two movies at a stretch. But even during that time, the mind is mostly in the bhavānga state. There is no “self” watching the movie. It is just a series of events taking place. The mind is “putting all those “events” together and giving the appearance of a continuous progression of events. Thus one has the perception that “I am watching a movie.”
- We will discuss that in detail in the next post. Later on, we will also discuss why it is also incorrect to say that there is “no-self.”

REFERENCES

1. M. C. Potter et al., “Detecting Meaning in RSVP at 13 ms per Picture”: https://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle ... sAllowed=y, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 13, pp. 90-101 (2014).
2. V. Isnard et al., “The time course of auditory recognition measured with rapid sequences of short natural sounds“:https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio ... ral_sounds, Scientific Reports, vol. 9, pp. 1-10 (2019).
Last edited by Lal on Mon Oct 14, 2019 12:06 pm, edited 1 time in total.

auto
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by auto » Mon Oct 14, 2019 11:33 am

Lal wrote:
Sun Oct 13, 2019 5:19 pm
I don't have much time today to respond in detail. But you can get the basic idea from the following:

DN 33:
Tayo akusalavitakkā—kāmavitakko, byāpādavitakko, vihiṃsāvitakko. (5)

Tayo kusalavitakkā—nekkham­ma­vitakko, abyāpā­da­vitakko, avihiṃ­sā­vitakko. (6)


Akusalavitakkā are just vitakka.
Kusalavitakkā are savitakka.

Further evidence from SN 43.12:
"Katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅ­kha­ta­gāmi­maggo? Savitakko savicāro samādhi. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asaṅ­kha­ta­gāmi­maggo … pe … katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅ­kha­ta­gāmi­maggo? Avitakko vicāramatto samādhi. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asaṅ­kha­ta­gāmi­maggo … pe … katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅ­kha­ta­gāmi­maggo? Avitakko avicāro samādhi. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asaṅ­kha­ta­gāmi­maggo … pe …. (1.3–5.)

Here, asaṅ­kha­ta­gāmi­maggo is the way to Nibbana. Asaṅ­kha­ta is Nibbana.
if -a- means form transcending, without impingement, aversion doesn't arise regards to the likeable things and agreement doesn't arise regards to the dislikeable things.
Then,
akusalavitakka are thoughts what are form transcending as of like sensual pleasure thoughts there is no drawbacks seen, no discernment/vipassana available.

kusalavitakka are thoughts where is form, discernment can be made, drawback is seen hence mind inclines towards seclusion. abyāpā­da­vitakka is where thoughts of ill will can't find a footing, no form.

according to this I think I can agree with kusalavitakka is savitakka if kusala is with sila, morality, skillful whereas savitakka means accompanied with reason, with reason.

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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by auto » Sat Oct 19, 2019 1:53 pm

the vivicca akusalehi dhammehi refers to the what vivicceva kāmehi is
idha bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati
like Oswald, the person with a pointy nose.
and
savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ refer to the absence of vaci, instead there is pitisukha as an object/vihara. It is like seeing a killing, you don't do it yourself nor give commands but regardless pitisukha arises.

Lal
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal » Sat Oct 19, 2019 3:09 pm

auto wrote:
Sat Oct 19, 2019 1:53 pm

savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ refer to the absence of vaci,
Then what is avitakka/avicara?

auto
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by auto » Sat Oct 19, 2019 6:33 pm

Lal wrote:
Sat Oct 19, 2019 3:09 pm
auto wrote:
Sat Oct 19, 2019 1:53 pm

savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ refer to the absence of vaci,
Then what is avitakka/avicara?
absence of vacisankhara.

Lal
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal » Sun Oct 20, 2019 11:03 am

Chachakka Sutta – No “Self” in Initial Sensory Experience

Cha chakka – Six Sets of Sixes

1. We have finished discussing the six steps in the Chachakka Sutta. Let us briefly summarize the “six sets of sixes” (Cha chakka.)

- The sutta first lists the “six sets” or “six collections.” “Cha ajjhattikāni āyatanāni veditabbāni, cha bāhirāni āyatanāni veditabbāni, cha viññāṇakāyā veditabbā, cha phassakāyā veditabbā, cha vedanākāyā veditabbā, cha taṇhākāyā veditabbā.”
That means: “One needs to understand the following “six sets of sixes”: Six internal āyatana, six external āyatana, six classes of (vipāka) viññāṇa, six classes of phassa, six classes of vēdanā, six classes of taṇhā.

Let us briefly state what they are. I have explained them in detail in preceding posts.
- Six internal āyatana are: “Cakkhāyatanaṃ, sotāyatanaṃ, ghānāyatanaṃ, jivhāyatanaṃ, kāyāyatanaṃ, manāyatanaṃ.“
- Six external āyatana are: “Rūpāyatanaṃ, saddāyatanaṃ, gandhāyatanaṃ, rasāyatanaṃ, phoṭṭhabbāyatanaṃ, dhammāyatanaṃ.”
- Six classes of (vipāka) viññāṇa are: “cakkhuviññāṇa, sotaviññāṇa, ghānaviññāṇa, jivhāviññāṇa, kāyaviññāṇa, manoviññāṇa.”
- The six classes of phassa: “Cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṃ, tiṇṇaṃ saṅgati phasso” and similarly for the other five (i.e., they are six types of “san phassa“),
- Six classes of vedanā: “phassa paccayā vedanā” arising due to each of the preceding six types of “san phassa.”
- Six classes of taṇhā: “vedanā paccayā taṇhā” due to the preceding six types of vedanā.
- It could be a good idea to print out the Pāli version of the sutta so that you can track which section of the sutta a verse under discussion is.

Chachakka Sutta Describes Initial Sensory Experiences Based on a New Ārammana

2. About the first fourth of the “Chachakka Sutta (MN 148)” discusses the following steps: “Cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṃ, tiṇṇaṃ saṅgati phasso, phassa paccayā vedanā, vedanā paccayā taṇhā.” (repeated for all six sense faculties.)

The sutta describes the automatic and instantaneous response to a new ārammana. With several posts, we discussed in detail all those steps. Very briefly, those steps are (just focusing on the cakkhu viññāna):

- With the coming together (contact) between cakkhu (or cakkhu pasāda rūpa) and a rūpa (which is a “snapshot” of that external rūpa), cakkhu viññāna arises. Cakkhu is NOT the physical eyes; “seeing” happens only when a rūpa makes contact with cakkhu pasāda. Please review previous posts as needed.
- If that rūpa has a kāma guna, one may get interested in it (if one has the corresponding “san gati“). The next step takes place ONLY IF one has such matching gati for that rūpa or that ārammana.
- If one has matching “san gati,” then a corresponding “samphassa-jā-vēdanā” arises AUTOMATICALLY. See, “Vipāka Vēdanā and “Samphassa jā Vēdanā” in a Sensory Event.“
- The next step, “vedanā paccayā taṇhā,” happens if that “samphassa-jā-vēdanā” is strong enough to take further action. We discussed that last step in the post, “Kāma Guṇa – Origin of Attachment (Tanhā).”

A Ārammana triggers sensory Experiences

3. Therefore, the sutta describes the series of events that take place when a new ārammana comes to the mind via one of the six internal sense bases (internal āyatana).

- It is essential to see that ALL these activities happen AUTOMATICALLY and INSTANTANEOUSLY. They do not require CONSCIOUS thinking. There is no INTENTION involved.
- That is a critical point to understand. You might say, “I can use any of the sensory faculties (internal āyatana) anytime I want to.” That is true. But think about any event, and you can ALWAYS trace it back to a ārammana that comes to mind on its own.
- For example, when one is walking down a crowded street, one may see, hear many things. But one sight or sound could stop you and start doing something else. You may see an eye-catching item in a store window, stop to look at it, and then go inside to buy it. That was triggered via, “cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṃ.” The sutta describes what happens ONLY at the MOMENT that you saw the item. Once you get “attached to it,” you start generating vaci sankhāra (consciously thinking about the item) and kāya sankhāra (go inside the store). That is the "kamma generation" stage. We will discuss that in later posts.
- Even in the middle of a discussion, one may get a new idea, and then everyone may start talking about that new idea he/she presented. Then the conversation changes to a new topic with that new ārammana. That happened with a dhammā (an idea) which came to the mind via “manañca paṭicca dhamme ca uppajjati manoviññāṇaṃ.”

Chachakka Sutta Describes Only Kamma Vipāka

4. All the steps in #2 above happen within a fraction of a second. There is no conscious thinking involved. They are all kamma vipāka.

- Of course, that process describes only those events immediately following the INITIAL sensory contact. One can deliberately experience that sensory contact again and again after the initial experience. For example, one may keep looking at an interesting sight or keep listening to a pleasing sound. That is when one accumulates a new kamma (if done with greed, anger, or ignorance). We will discuss those steps in future posts involving Paticca Samuppāda.
- Results of past kamma automatically lead to kamma vipāka. Based on them, we create new kamma. That is how the rebirth process continues.

Sensory Inputs – One “Packet” At a Time

5. As I discussed in detail in the previous post, all our sensory inputs come into the brain in “packets.” The brain can process those six types of data in parallel (at the same time). Each “packet” is about one-hundredth of a second (10 milliseconds) in duration. Then those processed signals arrive at the seat of the mind (hadaya vatthu) located on the mental body (manōmaya kāya or gandhabba). The mind, in turn, analyzes only ONE packet of information as a time. See the previous post, “Vision Is a Series of “Snapshots” – Movie Analogy.”

- For example, while the mind is processing a “sight” or rūpa rūpa, it CANNOT process a “sound” or a “sadda rūpa.” The mind switches to another sensory input after analyzing that “snapshot” of sight. Of course, our eyes and ears do not “die” moment-to-moment. It is just that “cakkhu,” for example, is ALIVE (or ACTIVE) only while the mind is processing input from the physical eyes.
- Therefore, ONLY ONE internal āyatana is “ALIVE” at a given moment. Our “cakkhu” comes alive while the mind is receiving a “snapshot” of an external rūpa. The “sōta” is alive (or active) only during a brief moment of receiving a “bit of sound” like just a word. They come to the mind in “packets,” not as a continuous stream. But it SEEMS that we experience them all at the same time since the mind processes all inputs at a fast rate.
- The following example may help to get the basic idea. We have seen those signposts where a message runs one letter at a time, but at a fast rate. Only one letter is in display at a given moment. But within a fraction of a second, that letter turns off, and the next letter turns on, and so on. Since it happens fast, we can read the message.
- The mind is extremely fast. It is able not only to put together such a stream of incoming signals but also to separate the six sensory inputs. In the previous post (see #8 there), I briefly mentioned that the mind does this with the help of the manasikāra cetasika.
- More details at “Citta and Cetasika – How Vinnana (Consciousness) Arises.”

If Cakkhu Is “Attā,” It Must Be Alive (or Operational) All The Time

Now let us discuss the next verse in the sutta. It helps understand what is meant by the critical Pāli words attā and sakkāya ditthi.

6. We have the perception that there is a “self” that sees, hears, tastes, smells, touches, and perceives things all at the same time.

- However, we do not experience all six sensory inputs at the same time. Even with just one sensory input, the mind receives only a brief “snapshot” of it at a time. See, “Vision Is a Series of “Snapshots” – Movie Analogy.”
- In other words, our six internal āyatana of cakkhu, sōta, ghāna, jivhā, kāya, and manō arise ONLY if a corresponding ārammana appears. As I have emphasized, our physical eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body are not our internal āyatana. See, “Buddhist Worldview – Introduction.”
- Therefore, “one’s self” is not there in ANY of those 36 entities. All those come to existence momentarily and pass away. That happens from time-to-time only when a ārammana is registered.
- That is a critical conclusion that is related to “anattā.” It will also become clear that anattā is different from anatta (without the long “ā.”) Let us discuss anattā in detail now.

A “Self” Is Not Involved in The Preceding Processes

7. After going through the steps in #2 above, the next part of the sutta starts with the verse, “‘Cakkhu attā’ti yo vadeyya taṃ na upapajjati. Cakkhussa uppādopi vayopi paññāyati. Yassa kho pana uppādopi vayopi paññāyati, ‘attā me uppajjati ca veti cā’ti iccassa evamāgataṃ hoti. Tasmā taṃ na upapajjati: ‘cakkhu attā’ti yo vadeyya. Iti cakkhu anattā.”

Loosely translated: “If anyone says, ‘The cakkhu is self,’ (or “seeing” is mine or “it is I who sees”) that is not tenable. An arising and disappearing of cakkhu (not the physical eye) is evident. If cakkhu is ‘self,’ that would imply: ‘my self arises and disappears’ OR ‘I come into being momentarily and disappear.’ That is why it cannot be argued that ‘The eye is self.’ Thus cakkhu is ‘not-self’, i.e., it is ‘anattā.” (“na attā” for “not attā” rhymes as “anattā,” just as “na āgāmi” rhymes as “Anāgāmi.”)

- That verse is then repeated for the other five entities related to cakkhu, i.e., rūpa, cakkhu viññāna, cakkhu samphassa, cakkhu samphassa-jā-vēdanā, tanha (due to cakkhu samphassa-jā-vēdanā.) The last verse in that series is, “Iti cakkhu anattā, rūpā anattā, cakkhuviññāṇaṃ anattā, cak¬khu¬samphasso anattā, vedanā anattā, taṇhā anattā.”
- Then that is repeated for the six entities associated with sōta, ghāna, jivhā, kāya, and manō (6 x 6). The last verse is, “Iti mano anattā, dhammā anattā, manoviññāṇaṃ anattā, manosamphasso anattā, vedanā anattā, taṇhā anattā.” At this point, we are about halfway through the text in the sutta.
- Therefore, there is no “self” to be found in any of those. And those entities encompass everything that is involved in any experience.
- Now let us discuss two other suttas briefly to make those points clear.

Bāhiya Sutta – “Diṭṭhe Diṭṭhamattaṃ Bhavissati

8. In the “Bāhiya Sutta(Udāna 1.10),” the Buddha tells Bāhiya, “Tasmātiha te, bāhiya, evaṃ sikkhitabbaṃ: ‘diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ bhavissati, sute sutamattaṃ bhavissati, mute mutamattaṃ bhavissati, viññāte viññātamattaṃ bhavissatī’ti.
Translated: “Bāhiya, you should train yourself the following way. At any moment, what you see (diṭṭhe) is just a snapshot (diṭṭhamattaṃ is literally, “trace of a sight.”) What you hear (sute) is a brief sound (sutamattaṃ.) What you experience with taste, smell, and touch (mute) is a trace of that (mutamattaṃ.) Your viññāna (viññāte) is a trace of viññāna (viññātamattaṃ.)

Then the Buddha further explains, “Yato kho te, bāhiya, diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ bhavissati, sute sutamattaṃ bhavissati, mute mutamattaṃ bhavissati, viññāte viññātamattaṃ bhavissati, tato tvaṃ, bāhiya, na tena; yato tvaṃ, bāhiya, na tena tato tvaṃ, bāhiya, na tattha; yato tvaṃ, bāhiya, na tattha, tato tvaṃ, bāhiya, nevidha na huraṃ na ubhayamantarena. Esevanto dukkhassā” ti.

Translated: “Since what you see (diṭṭhe) is just a snapshot (and similarly for others), Bāhiya, there is no “you” (involved) there; because of that Bāhiya, should not get attached (na tattha); if you do that, Bāhiya, “you” are not in this existence (nevidha) or another existence (na huraṃ) or in between those two (na ubhayamantarena.”) That (understanding) is the end of suffering (Esevanto dukkhassā” ti.)

My comments:
- That means that it is incorrect to say there is a “self” experiencing those traces of sensory events. Those are just results (vipāka) of past kamma, i.e., causes bring corresponding results. We will discuss this below a little bit more with the Mālukyaputta Sutta below.
- However, the above description may give the impression that everything is deterministic. That is not so, and that will become clear when will address what happens following the initial “vipāka stage.”
- Many people incorrectly translate “mattam” to English as “only.” For example, most current translators translate “diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ” as “seeing is only seeing.”
- Diṭṭhamatta means “a snapshot” (literally a “trace of seeing.”). For example, appamatta means “insignificant.” “appa” means “little” and “matta” means “a trace.” Matta is “mātra” in Sanskrit and “මාත්‍ර” in Sinhala. As we discussed in the previous post, it is the mind (or the viññāna) that gives us the illusion of a continuous sensory experience implying an “experiencer.” That is why the Buddha said that viññāṇa is a magician. See #2 of the post, “Vision Is a Series of “Snapshots” – Movie Analogy.”

Mālukyaputta Sutta – Same Verse and More Details

9. Those above verses in #8 are also in the “Mālukyaputta Sutta (SN 35.95),” where the Buddha tells bhikkhu Mālukyaputta, “Ettha ca te, mālukyaputta, diṭṭhasutamutaviññātabbesu dhammesu diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ bhavissati, sute sutamattaṃ bhavissati, mute mutamattaṃ bhavissati, viññāte viññātamattaṃ bhavissati. Yato kho te, mālukyaputta, diṭṭhasutamutaviññātabbesu dhammesu diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ bhavissati, sute sutamattaṃ bhavissati, mute mutamattaṃ bhavissati, viññāte viññātamattaṃ bhavissati; tato tvaṃ, mālukyaputta, na tena. Yato tvaṃ, mālukyaputta, na tena; tato tvaṃ, mālukyaputta, na tattha. Yato tvaṃ, mālukyaputta, na tattha; tato tvaṃ, mālukyaputta, nevidha, na huraṃ, na ubhayamantarena. Esevanto dukkhassā”ti.

That is very similar to Bāhiya Sutta above. However, now bhikkhu Mālukyaputta recounts what he understood. That is very informative.

Mālukyaputta Sutta – What Happens If One Gets Attached

10. Bhikkhu Mālukyaputta then says that he understood what the Buddha meant by the above verse. He explains his understanding:

Rūpaṃ disvā sati muṭṭhā,
Piyaṃ nimittaṃ manasi karoto;
Sārattacitto vedeti,
Tañca ajjhosa tiṭṭhati.

Tassa vaḍḍhanti vedanā,
anekā rūpasambhavā;
Abhijjhā ca vihesā ca,
citta¬massū¬pa¬haññati;
Evaṃ ācinato dukkhaṃ,
ārā nibbāna vuccati
.’

Translation:

“When one sees a form (rūpa) without mindfulness (i.e., without knowing that it is just a trace of “seeing”),
one gets attached to that (nimitta or ārammana),
One experiences it with an infatuated mind (with greed)
And remains bound to it.

“Many feelings flourish within,
Originating from the mind thinking about many related rūpa (anekā rūpasambhavā);
Greed and anger as well
By which one’s mind becomes disturbed;
For one who accumulates suffering thus
Nibbāna is far away.

Mālukyaputta Sutta – What Happens If One Does Not Get Attached

11. Bhikkhu Mālukyaputta then says the following about how one needs to train oneself to attain Nibbāna:

Na so rajjati rūpesu,
rūpaṃ disvā paṭissato;
Virattacitto vedeti,
tañca nājjhosa tiṭṭhati.

Yathāssa passato rūpaṃ,
sevato cāpi vēdanāṃ;
Khīyati nopacīyati,
evaṃ so caratī sato;
Evaṃ apacinato dukkhaṃ,
santike nibbāna vuccati
.’

Translation:

“When one sees a form with mindfulness (with proper understanding)
One is not inflamed by lust for forms;
One experiences it with a dispassionate mind
And does not hold to it tightly.

“For one acting mindfully in such a way
Without attaching to the form,
Even while one experiencing those feelings;
Suffering is exhausted, not built up
For one not piling up suffering thus,
Nibbāna is near.

Next Post

12. From what bhikkhu Mālukyaputta stated above, we can begin to see that it is not correct to say that it is “no-self,” either. After the “vipāka stage” that comes with a new ārammana is over, it is possible to “take control” of the sensory experience. That is possible IF one comprehends that anattā nature involved in the vipāka stage. Without that understanding, one would have sakkāya ditthi as the sutta points out next.

- Aside for those who are anxious to see why it is not correct to say that it is “no-self,” either: At the end of the vipāka stage (at the step, “vedanā paccayā taṇhā“), a new phase of the sensory experience starts. That is the “kamma accumulation” stage. That new phase could last a long time if the mind is firmly attached to that ārammana. One may think about more ways of enjoying that ārammana, may speak about it, and may do things to pursue that ārammana. All those are sankhāra, and they lead to kamma viññāna via, “sankhāra paccayā viññāna.” However, Chachakka sutta does not get to the vipāka stage. But that is what bhikkhu Mālukyaputta explained in #10 and #11 above. We will discuss that in detail after finishing the discussion on the Chachakka Sutta.
- Details of that “kamma accumulation” process will depend on whether one would still have sakkāya ditthi. That means one does not realize that there is no “self” or “attā” involved in that initial sensory experience due to kamma vipāka.
- That is the next verse in the Chachakka Sutta, which we will discuss in the next post.

Lal
Posts: 422
Joined: Thu Jun 23, 2016 11:39 am

Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal » Sun Oct 27, 2019 10:59 am

I have revised the post after about 6 hours as follows:
1. #5 in the original post was split into #5 and #6.
2. An addition was made to new #11 about wrong perceptions.

Sakkāya Ditthi in Terms of Attā or “Self” or “Ātma”

Summary of Chachakka Sutta Up to This Point

1. The Chachakka Sutta (MN 148) describes in detail what happens when a new ārammana (thought object) comes to the mind. The mind may “attach” (tanhā) to that ārammana via greed, anger, or ignorance. Let us briefly summarize those steps. All relevant posts are at, “[html]https://puredhamma.net/difference-betwe ... n-of-life/[/html].” At Dhamma Wheel, the series started on Jun 29, 2019, on p. 73:viewtopic.php?f=46&t=26749&start=1080

- First, depending on the specific internal āyatana involved, one of six vipāka viññāṇa arises. Those are cakkhu, sōta, ghāna, jivhā, kāya, or manō viññāṇa. Such a viññāṇa does not create kammic energy. It is just “seeing,” “hearing,” “smelling,” “tasting,” “touching,” or “recalling a memory or an idea.”
- Then the mind “makes contact” with “san gati.” If one has gati to attach to that ārammana via greed, anger, or ignorance, then the mind GENERATES corresponding sōmanassa, dōmanassa, or upekkha vēdanā. They are samphassa-jā-vēdanā or mind-made vēdanā.
- The mind “attaches” to that ārammana if such a “mind-made” vēdanā arises. Here one can attach (tanhā) via greed, hate, or ignorance.
- The keyword ārammana was introduced in the post, “Vipāka Vēdanā and “Samphassa jā Vēdanā” in a Sensory Event.”

The Unique Situation For an Arahant

2. Only the first step happens in an Arahant. There is no attachment to any ārammana. Only the experience of kāma guna (such as the sweetness of sugar or the bitterness of lemon) is there. See, “Kāma Guṇa – Origin of Attachment (Tanhā).”

- However, an Arahant would also feel kāyika (bodily) vēdanā due to injuries, sicknesses, etc. Those are dukkha, sukha, or adukkhamasukha vēdanā. Note that no sōmanassa/dōmanassa vēdanā experienced by an Arahant.
- Anyone other than an Arahant MIGHT attach to a particular ārammana. Whether or not that attachment happens, depend on the “san gati.” It is not that everyone attaches every ārammana.

Deeper Aspects of the Chachakka Sutta

3. We also discussed the “deeper aspects” involved in those steps.

- Only one of the six types of viññāṇa arises in mind at any moment due to a specific ārammana. When we see, do not hear, smell, taste, touch, or think AT THAT BRIEF MOMENT. That is because only one citta vithi focused on one sensory input can be present at any moment. Put it in another way, only one pasada rūpa can make contact with the hadaya vatthu (seat of the mind) at a given time. The mind analyzes that sensory contact with four citta vithi JUST FOCUSED ON that particular sensory input.
- For example, when the mind is analyzing a “packet of sound,” it just focuses on that sound. The mind DOES NOT and CANNOT see, taste, smell, etc. during that brief time. Thus sensory inputs are analyzed in “packets.” Each “packet” is only one of six possible types (sight, sound, taste, smell, touch, or recall of dhammā.)
- We analyzed that in terms of recent findings from modern science. The mind takes “snapshots” of each sensory input separated by about a hundredth of a second (10 milliseconds.) Since that happens very fast, we “feel like” we are “seeing continuously.” That is an illusion created by the mind, just like we perceive a set of snapshots as a continuous movie. See, “Vision Is a Series of “Snapshots” – Movie Analogy.”
- Not only that, but we feel that we are seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, touching, and thinking all at the same time. But the reality is that the mind receives only one “snapshot” at a time. The mind has the astounding capability to combine “data packets” from the “six doors” without mixing them up!

What is Ghana Saññā?

4. The fast mind gives the illusion that there is a “person” or a “self” or an “attā” experiencing those sensory events. That incorrect perception is “ghāna saññā.” or a "perception of solidity."

- I had not used that term “ghāna saññā” previously. It is a word that describes the illusion that the mind creates by taking a series of “snapshots” and linking them together to provide a “continuous sensory experience.”
-As we discussed, that is what happens when we watch a movie too. The illusion of continuous motion results with the projection of a series of “static pictures.” See, “Vision Is a Series of “Snapshots” – Movie Analogy.”

5. Therefore, any sensory event is just a brief “snapshot.” It lasts a brief moment and goes to the past. That is the critical point to understand. Bāhiya understood that point instantly and attained the Arahanthood. But he had cultivated the path almost to the end, and just needed a “little push” to get there. That is what we discussed in the previous post, “Chachakka Sutta – No “Self” in Initial Sensory Experience.”

- The mind has the astounding capability to recall preceding “snapshots,” and to put it all together to present a “continuous sensory experience.” That is why the Buddha called viññāṇa a magician.

6. We also have a “ghāna saññā” about our physical body. We perceive that our bodies are solid, but as I have explained in a previous post, our bodies are “mostly empty.” That is because those atoms and molecules which make up our bodies are mostly empty. see, #7 – #10 of the post, “Mystical Phenomena in Buddhism?.”
- I keep summarizing the discussion up to now since there is a lot of material embedded in those verses. Now, let us discuss the next verse in the sutta.

Next Verse in the Chachakka Sutta Sakkāya Samudaya

We have discussed up to the verse which ends with, “Iti manō anattā, dhammā anattā, manoviññāṇaṃ anattā, manosamphasso anattā, vedanā anattā, taṇhā anattā.” Now we are getting to the critical conclusion reached from those earlier verses.

7. The next verse in the sutta starts with, “Ayaṃ kho pana, bhikkhave, sakkāyasamudayagāminī paṭipadācakkhuṃ ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’ti samanupassati; rūpe ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’ti samanupassati; …”

- Sakkāya here refers to sakkāya ditthi. Samudaya (“san” + “udaya“) means “arising (due to) san.” Gāmini means “path.” Patipadā means an “action plan” or simply one’s behavior. Thus, sakkāyasamudayagāminī paṭipadā means, “the behavior that leads to the arising of sakkāya ditthi.”
- Then it says, sakkāya ditthi arises because one believes that “cakkhu is mine, cakkhu is what I am, cakkhu is my “self.”
- The sutta then repeats that for all other five entities associated with “seeing”. They are rūpa, cakkhu viññāna, cakkhu samphassa, cakkhu samphassa-jā-vēdanā, and taṇhā (that results from cakkhu samphassa-jā-vēdanā.)
- Then it is repeated for the other five internal āyatana: sōta, ghāna, jivhā, kāya, manō.

Re-cap on the Initial Sensory Experience Due to Kamma Vipāka

8. All our discussions on the first half of the sutta led to the CRITICAL conclusion in the above verse. In simple terms, “there is no EXPERIENCER” experiencing those initial sensory inputs. As we remember, those INITIAL sensory inputs come in as kamma vipāka.

- Let me emphasize this point. Any sensory experience starts without direct initiation by the “experiencer.” For example, one FIRST sees an object via “cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṃ.” But that does not happen by chance. It is ALWAYS a kamma vipāka.
- A kamma vipāka experienced through the physical body (kāya) can be comforting (sukha), painful (dukkha), or neutral (adukkhamasukha). For example, one gets to lie on a comfortable bed due to a good kamma done in the past. A bad kamma done in the past leads to an injury. Both happen via “kāyañca paṭicca phoṭṭhabbe ca uppajjati kāyaviññāṇaṃ.”

9. All other INITIAL sensory EXPERIENCES START with adukkhamasukha vēdanā. We see, hear, smell, taste, or a thought comes to the mind. The last one is, “manañca paṭicca dhamme ca uppajjati manoviññāṇaṃ.” All those generate adukkhamasukha vēdanā (neutral feeling).

- However, based on all six initial sensory contacts, we may instantly generate sōmanassa or dōmanassa vēdanā due to kāma guna. For example, it is natural for a human to experience an appealing taste when tasting sugar or upon seeing an attractive person. Those are “mind-made” feelings or “samphassa-ja-vēdanā.” They are different from dukkha/sukha vēdanā associated with sensory contacts with the body (kāya.)
- Now, based on samphassa-ja-vēdanā, the mind may attach (tanhā) to that sensory input.

Tanhā Leads to Upādāna via Paticca Samuppāda

10. That is a critical step in Paticca Samuppāda, not discussed in the Chachakka Sutta. That sutta explains only the KAMMA VIPĀKA stage. That step of “tanhā paccayā upādāna” starts the “new kamma GENERATION” process.

- I hope now you can see that ALL of our kamma generation activities start when a new ārammana comes to the mind. That starts with, “salāyatana paccayā phassō” step in the Paticca Samuppāda cycle. It is the “tanhā paccayā upādāna” step that starts a new Paticca Samuppāda cycle with “avijjā paccayā sankhāra.”
- That is a CRITICAL point. I will take the time to explain this “tanhā paccayā upādāna” step. That way, one can get insights into how Paticca Samuppāda operates. Then one can begin to get an idea of the importance of understanding key concepts of Buddha Dhamma.

A New Paticca Samuppāda Process Starts Only if One Starts Acting with Avijjā

11. The Chachakka Sutta explains the REASONS why a given person may START to going through the kamma generation stage.

- One would pursue that ārammana (the sight, sound, etc.) ONLY IF one perceives that it is worthwhile or beneficial to him or her. Unless one has not REMOVED sakkāya ditthi, one is under the wrong view that those sensory experiences are one’s own.
- Someone with sakkāya ditthi does not realize that those experiences are just results of causes from the past. That they are kamma vipāka. Then one tries to get control of the situation by either trying to maintain a “good experience” or by trying to avoid a “bad experience.” Therefore, it is POSSIBLE for ANYONE with sakkāya ditthi to go through the “tanhā paccayā upādāna” step.

- However, I need to elaborate on the above point. Obviously, a Sōtapanna would NOT do only apāyagami deeds. He/she may still do some less-strong immoral deeds. That is because a Sōtapanna still has wrong perceptions (viparita saññā.) I will explain this in the next post. It is only at the Arahant stage that one would have removed both wrong views AND wrong perceptions.

12. However, not everyone with sakkāya ditthi will go through the “tanhā paccayā upādāna” step. Different people “attach” to different types of ārammana.

- For example, if a beautiful woman starts working at a workplace, everyone will see her as beautiful. But only a few will get “attached” and start thinking about asking her for a date. There could be one person who may “fall in love head over heels” at first sight of her.
- That is why we cannot say there is “no-self” either. Until one attains the Arahanthood, there will be a “dynamic self” who gets attached to somethings in this world. I say a “dynamic self” because there is no “fixed self” in the sense of a soul or a “ātma.” See, “What Reincarnates? – Concept of a Lifestream.”:https://puredhamma.net/three-levels-of- ... ifestream/

Attachment (Tanhā) Can Happen Due to Greed, Anger, or Ignorance

13. In the above example, we discussed getting attached to the sight of a beautiful woman. But as we have discussed before, one can “attach” to a ārammana via anger or ignorance too.

- If one sees an enemy, one will instantly generate anger in mind via the steps in the Chachakka Sutta. Here, the samphassa-jā-vēdanā generated is a dōmanassa vēdanā. It is a stressful vēdanā. But still one “attaches” to that ārammana, and will start making bad vaci sankhāra (i.e., conscious thoughts anger) in mind.
- On the other hand, the samphassa-jā-vēdanā generated in the example discussed in #11 above (upon seeing a beautiful woman) is a sōmanassa vēdanā. That person “attached” via greed.
- In some situations, one may be confused about how to respond to a ārammana and attach too. That is due to avijjā.

Tanhā Leads to Upādāna Depending on One’s Level of Avijjā

14. Therefore, one has sakkāya ditthi BECAUSE one has some or all of the following WRONG VIEWS.

• The physical body (kāya) is mine, it is what I am, and it is my “self.” Furthermore, all associated bodily functions are mine, they are what I am, and they are my “self.” Those are: seeing or cakkhu, hearing or sōta, tasting or jivhā, smelling or ghāna, touching or kāya, thinking or mana. See #6 above.
• Then one also tends to associate some external rūpa the same way. Those are rūpa rūpa (or vanna rūpa or simply rūpa), sadda rūpa, gandha rūpa, rasa rūpa, potthabba rūpa, and dhamma rūpa or dhammā. For example, “this is my house; my song; this is my cake; my favorite scent; my comfy bed; these are my thoughts.”
• One may also perceive that all of one’s mental aspects (cakkhu viññāna, cakkhu samphassa, cakkhu samphassa-jā-vēdanā, and taṇhā) are all one’s “self.” Of course, the same with other mental aspects associated with other sense faculties. There are 36 (6 X 6) such entities that the sutta lists.

Pañcupādānakkhandhā as Sakkāya Ditthi

15. Those 36 entities are also known as “Pañcupādānakkhandhā.” Here, Pañcupādānakkhandhā comes from “panca” + “upādāna“ + “khandha” or five aggregates, to which one gets attached (upādāna).

- If you carefully look at those 36 entities, they include rupakkhandha, vedanakkhandha, sannakkhandha, sankhārakkhandha, and the viññānakkhandha. However, one does not take all of those to be “mine.” For example, out of all the houses in this world, one may claim to own one or a few homes. Out of all humans, one may have a set of people that one considers to be “mine.” For example, my parents, wife, children, friends, etc.
- Therefore, it is only a small fraction of the pancakkhandha that one has “attachments to.” Those attachments can vary from very strong (my body is the strongest) to decreasing levels for friends, and neighbors, etc.
- Thus, pañcupādānakkhandhā is a small fraction of the pancakkhandha.
- The “Sakkāyapañhā Sutta (SN 38.15)” DEFINES sakkāya as pañcupādānakkhandhā: “Sakkāyo, sakkāyo’ti, āvuso sāriputta, vuccati. Katamo nu kho, āvuso, sakkāyo”ti? “Pañcime, āvuso, upādānakkhandhā sakkāyo vutto bhagavatā, seyyathidaṃ—rūpupādānakkhandho, vedanupādānakkhandho, saññupādānakkhandho, saṅkhārupādānakkhandho, viññāṇupādānakkhandho. Ime kho, āvuso, pañcupādānakkhandhā sakkāyo vutto bhagavatā”ti.

Other Ways of Describing Sakkāya Ditthi

16. It is possible to describe sakkāya ditthi in somewhat different ways. However, all of them are inter-consistent. The following posts discuss some of those. I would be happy to answer any questions.

- Sakkāya Ditthi is Personality (Me) View? :https://puredhamma.net/three-levels-of- ... y-me-view/
- Sakkāya Ditthi and Tilakkhana : https://puredhamma.net/key-hidden-dhamm ... ilakkhana/
- Sakkāya Ditthi – Getting Rid of Deeper Wrong Views : https://puredhamma.net/key-hidden-dhamm ... ong-views/

Wrong Views of Nicca and Sukha Lead to the Wrong View of Attā

17. One gets attached to things that one perceives to be nicca and sukha. Nicca (pronounced “nichcha”) means we believe we can keep them in the way we want or like. Sukha means we think we will be happy by getting “ownership” of them.

- Then one takes “ownership” of them. One considers those to be “one’s own” or “attā.” That attachment can vary from very strong to less strong. One’s own body and mental qualities (vēdanā, saññā, sankhāra, viññāṇa regarding one’s own body) gives the strongest sense of attā.
- Then comes one’s spouse, children, etc., one’s house, cars, etc., one’s relatives and friends, etc.
- Therefore, the hardest to remove is the sense of attā with regards to one’s own body.
- IT CANNOT be removed by will-power. It comes only from understanding the anicca, dukkha, anatta nature of this world. What we discussed up to now play a significant role to get that understanding. There is no "experiencer" of sensory inputs. They come in as results (kama vipāka) of previous causes (kamma.)

Lal
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal » Sun Nov 03, 2019 11:36 am

An Apparent “Self” Is Involved in Kamma Generation

Introduction

1. In this post, we will discuss why someone with sakkāya diṭṭhi believes in a “self” (knowingly or unknowingly) and accumulates kamma with that wrong view.

- In previous posts in this series, we discussed why there is no “Experiencer.” Thus, there is no need for the existence of a “self” to describe an INITIAL sensory experience.
- However, anyone with sakkāya diṭṭhi has the wrong view of a “self” experiencing sensory inputs. Based on that mistaken view, steps are taken to maintain a “good experience” or to stop a “bad experience.” Therefore, we could say that there is a “Doer” as long as there is sakkāya diṭṭhi. That is why it is not correct to say that there is “no-self” either.
- By the way, that does not mean we do not need to take action to prevent bad outcomes. The key idea is to realize the unfruitfulness of doing immoral deeds (including conscious thoughts and speech) in response to sensory inputs.
- The Chachakka Sutta (MN 148) describes in detail what happens when a new ārammana (thought object) comes to the mind. The mind may “attach” (tanhā) automatically to that ārammana via greed, anger, or ignorance. Let us briefly summarize those steps. It is critical to follow these steps. All relevant posts are at “Worldview of the Buddha.” The main subsection is “Origin of Life.”

Posts on the Background Material

2. In earlier posts, we discussed that INITIAL sensory experiences DO NOT require a “self.” However, they do not happen arbitrarily or randomly either. Those sensory experiences have causes (or reasons); they are kamma vipāka.

- Some kamma vipāka bring in suffering, such as injuries, sickness, etc., while other vipāka results in pleasurable experiences, such as good food, comfortable living, etc. Those are ALL experienced via the physical body (kāya.) They are NOT illusions. There is real suffering (and some pleasures too.)
- All other INITIAL sensory experiences do not DIRECTLY lead to pain or pleasure. Seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and recalling memories, etc. are “neutral” sensory experiences at that moment.

3. However, based on those sensory inputs, sōmanassa or dōmanassa vēdāna arise automatically in mind. Those are “mind-generated” vēdāna based on “kāma guṇa.” All humans (including Arahants) experience the sweetness of sugar or bitterness of some medicines. These are the same as “samphassa-jā-vēdanā.” See, “Kāma Guṇa – Origin of Attachment (Tanhā).”

- Then, based on those samphassa-jā-vēdanā, a given person may attach (tanhā) to that particular sensory event (ārammana.) Only an Arahant is guaranteed not to attach.
- That is the summary of about a fourth of the Pāli text in the Chachakka Sutta (MN 148). That completes the six sets of six.

No “Self” Involved in the Initial Sensory Experiences

4. As we have discussed, the next verse in the sutta is, “’Cakkhu attā’ti yo vadeyya taṃ na upapajjati. Cakkhussa uppādopi vayopi paññāyati. Yassa kho pana uppādopi vayopi paññāyati, ‘attā me uppajjati ca veti cā’ti iccassa evamāgataṃ hoti. Tasmā taṃ na upapajjati: ‘cakkhu attā’ti yo vadeyya. Iti cakkhu anattā.

Loosely translated: “If anyone says, ‘ Cakkhu is self,’ (or “seeing” is mine or “it is I who sees”) that is not tenable. An arising and disappearing of cakkhu (not the physical eye) is evident. If cakkhu is ‘self,’ that would imply: ‘my self arises and disappears’ OR ‘I come into being momentarily and disappear.’ That is why one cannot argue that ‘cakkhu is self.’ Thus cakkhu is ‘not-self’ or ‘anattā.” (“na attā” for “not attā” rhymes as “anattā,” just as “na āgāmi” rhymes as “Anāgāmi.”)

- Then the next fourth of the Pāli text in the Chachakka Sutta (MN 148) states that the above conclusion holds for all 36 entities ( “six sets of sixes”) involved in the initial sensory experience. Six internal āyatana, six external āyatana, six classes of (vipāka) viññāṇa, six classes of phassa, six classes of vēdanā, six classes of taṇhā.
- See, “Chachakka Sutta – No “Self” in Initial Sensory Experience” for details on that.
- Then we discussed the next verse in the sutta starting with, “Ayaṃ kho pana, bhikkhave, sakkāyasamudayagāminī paṭipadā..“

The Origin of the Wrong View of Sakkāya DitthiSakkāya Samudaya

5. The sutta then states that the wrong view of sakkāya diṭṭhi arises BECAUSE one does not realize the above facts. Without knowing those facts, one tends to BELIEVE that there is a “self” experiencing those very first sensory events.

- Then, if it is was a “good experience,” one would try to maintain that pleasant experience and also plan to experience it again in the future. In the case of a “bad experience,” one would do the opposite to try to avoid such “bad experiences.”
- The more one engages in either kind of such activity, the wrong VIEW of a “self” (sakkāya diṭṭhi) grows.

6. That explanation is in a short verse starting with, “Ayaṃ kho pana, bhikkhave, sakkāyasamudayagāminī paṭipadācakkhuṃ ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’ti samanupassati; rūpe ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’ti samanupassati; …”

- We discussed this verse in detail in the last post, “Sakkāya Ditthi in Terms of Attā or “Self” or “Ātma.”
- So far I have summarized the discussion up to now. Now, we can discuss the next verse of the sutta.

Next Verse in the Chachakka Sutta – Sakkāya Nirodhaya

The verse in #6 above explains how sakkāya diṭṭhi ARISES. The new verse below explains HOW sakkāya diṭṭhi WILL STOP FROM ARISING.

7. The next verse in the Chachakka Sutta (MN 148) starts with, “Ayaṃ kho pana, bhikkhave, sakkāyanirodhagāminī paṭipadācakkhuṃ ‘netaṃ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti samanupassati. Rūpe ‘netaṃ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti samanupassati…”

- The word nirōdha comes from “nir”+”udaya,” where “nir” means to stop and “udaya” means “arise.” Thus nirōdha means to prevent something from arising.
- Gāmini means “path.” Patipada means an “action plan” or one’s behavior. Thus, sakkāyanirodhagāminī paṭipadā means, “the behavior that leads to STOPPING the arising of sakkāya diṭṭhi.”
- Then it says, that will happen when one “SEES” that “cakkhu is NOT mine, cakkhu is NOT what I am, cakkhu is NOT my “self.” Here, “netam” means “na” + “etam” or “it is not.”

8. The sutta then repeats that for all other five entities associated with “seeing.” They are rūpa, cakkhu viññāna, cakkhu samphassa, cakkhu samphassa-jā-vēdanā, and taṇhā (that results from cakkhu samphassa-jā-vēdanā.)

- Then it is repeated for the other five internal āyatana: sōta, ghāna, jivhā, kāya, manō. Please go through those verses.
- However, it may NOT be easy to “see” that there is no “self” involved in sensory experiences. We have had the wrong view of sakkāya diṭṭhi for virtually forever! That is why we are in this never-ending rebirth process.
- To remove that strong diṭṭhi, we need to see the “true nature,” i.e., need to cultivate “yathābhuta ñāna.” A big part of that is realizing that there is no "experiencer," as we have discussed in detail using the movie analogy. See the post, "Vision Is a Series of “Snapshots” – Movie Analogy."
- We will focus on that in detail in upcoming posts. However, this sutta briefly states the basic process.

Sakkāya Nirodhaya Starts With Vēdāna

9. The key to arriving at that UNDERSTANDING is stated in the next verse of the sutta, starting with, “Cakkhuñca, bhikkhave, paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṃ, tiṇṇaṃ saṅgati phasso, phassapaccayā uppajjati vedayitaṃ sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā.”
Translated: “Bhikkhus, dependent on cakkhu and forms, eye-consciousness arises; then the mind makes contact with “san gati“; that contact with “san gati” leads to the arising of “mind-made” feelings felt as pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant.”

- Regardless of the sense faculty, those “mind-made” vēdāna or “samphassa-jā-vedanā” CAN ARISE based on kāma guṇa AND one’s gati.
- We discussed this part of the verse already in the posts, “Indriya Make Phassa and Ayatana Make Samphassa,” “Vipāka Vēdanā and “Samphassa jā Vēdanā” in a Sensory Event,” and “Kāma Guṇa – Origin of Attachment (Tanhā).”

Getting Attached to Vēdāna Leads to the Growth of Anusaya

10. Then the subsequent verses introduce a critical word, anusaya. Based on sukha vēdāna, dukkha vēdāna, and adukkhamasukha vēdāna, three corresponding types of anusaya result: rāgānusaya, paṭighānusaya, and avijjānusaya.

- Let us start with the verse that explains the origins of rāgānusaya: “So sukhāya vedanāya phuṭṭho samāno abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati. Tassa rāgānusayo anuseti.“
- Translated: “When one experiences a sukha vēdāna, if one delights in it, welcomes it, and thinks and speaks highly of it, gets absorbed in it, then the underlying tendency for rāga (rāgānusaya) gets stronger (i.e., rāgānusaya will grow).”
- Here, rāgānusaya comes from “rāga” + “anusaya.” Now we need to get an idea about the meaning of anusaya first.

What is Anusaya?

11. Anusaya is usually translated as “latent tendencies.” That does give the basic idea. Such “latent tendencies are in our gati. Anusaya and “gati” are closely related. See, “The Law of Attraction, Habits, Character (Gati), and Cravings (Asavas)” and “Āsava, Anusaya, and Gati (Gathi).”

- Everyone has a set of gati (habits/character qualities). Each person has his/her own set of things/activities that one likes and dislikes. Some of these are not moral or immoral.
- But we also have moral (ethical) gati and corrupt (bad) gati. Here moral/immoral have a wide range, and we will discuss that later. But those deeds have kammic consequences. Those are the gati that are relevant.

12. By the way, notice that now we are talking about a “person” or a “self” who has sakkāya diṭṭhi (and gati and anusaya)! That is why it is not correct to say that there is “no-self” either.

- When we keep doing what we are used to doing, that habit will only GROW. That also means anusaya will grow and that growth due to the activity is “anuseti.“
- Arahants do not have moral/immoral gati, but they do have kammically neutral gati (habits). Such practices include doing things in specific ways.

Raga Anusaya Grows by Getting Attached to Mind- Made Sukha Vēdāna or Somanassa Vēdāna

13. What the sutta states in the verse of #10 are the following. When a “pleasing ārammana” comes to the mind, it may delight in that ārammana. If so, it will welcome that ārammana and will “get absorbed in it.” That means the person would think highly about it, speak highly about it, and act on it to sustain that ārammana.

- For example, if X sees an object that X likes, X will keep looking at it and start thinking about how good it is. X may tell another how good it is. Even later on, X may plan to experience that sight again. Those activities involve vaci and kāya saṅkhāra.
- That is how the Paticca Samuppāda starts with “avijjā paccayā saṅkhāra” and “saṅkhāra paccayā viññaṇa.”
- Here, avijjā is the ignorance of believing that there is a “self” experiencing that sensory input.

Those Viññaṇa Are Kamma Viññaṇa

14. We remember that there could be six types of viññaṇa in the INITIAL sensory event that takes place due to kamma vipāka. Those are cakkhu, sōta, ghāna, jivhā, kāya, or manō viññaṇa. They are ALL vipāka viññaṇa, which makes one aware of the sensory input.

- However, viññaṇa in “saṅkhāra paccayā viññaṇa” generates kamma viññaṇa. Such kamma viññaṇa can ONLY be mano viññaṇa. They have embedded energy because that person has decided to take further steps to enjoy that sensory experience again and again.
- In the Abhidhamma language, those sankhāra have javana power. They create kammic energy for that kamma viññaṇa.
- In other words, that “person” has to spend time and effort to enjoy that sensory experience again. He has now created a “kamma bija” or expects a specific outcome.

15. For example, if a person X saw and “attached” to an expensive item in a store, X would talk about it with the spouse and make plans to come up with the money to pay for it. Until X buys that item, that “viññāṇa” will be there. The critical point here is that X already HAD a rāga anusaya for it, and by engaging in those follow-up activities, X “added” more energy to that. That addition is “anuseti.”

- Different people have different types of anusaya. That is why not everyone attaches to a given ārammana. Furthermore, each person’s levels of anusaya CAN change with time. That anusaya can be REMOVED too, and that is the way to Nibbāna.
- As you can imagine, the other two types of anusaya will “build up” the same way. With a “bad” ārammana, dosa or anger arises and, paṭighānusaya (paṭigha anusaya) strengthens.
- Finally, it is the avijjānusaya (avijjā anusaya)that builds up when acting with avijjā. We will discuss more on that in the next post.

Difference Between Ditthi Vipallāsa and Saññā Vipallāsa

I do not want to leave this post without clarifying the following point.

16. In the discussion forum at puredhamma.net, a legitimate question was asked: “Since a Sōtapanna has removed sakkāya diṭṭhi, why is that a Sōtapanna would still value sensory pleasures, and may even commit some immoral deeds?”

- As we know, a Sōtapanna is not incapable of doing ONLY “apāyagāmi” deeds that could lead to rebirths in the apāyā (plural of apāya.)
- There is a difference between “SEEING” (diṭṭhi) the real nature of this world and having corresponding PERCEPTIONS (saññā) about that real nature. It is important to understand what is meant by saññā; see, “Saññā – What It Really Means.” on September 14, 2018 (p. 31): viewtopic.php?f=46&t=26749&start=450
- The Pāli word “vipallāsa” means “confusions” or “distortions.” Wrong views lead to diṭṭhi vipallāsa and wrong perceptions lead to saññā vipallāsa. More details at “Vipallāsa (Ditthi, Saññā, Citta) Affect Sankhāra” at puredhamma.net.
- With that terminology, a Sōtapanna has removed diṭṭhi vipallāsa but still has saññā vipallāsa.

17. In other words, the wrong views about a “self” (sakkāya diṭṭhi) go away at the Sōtapanna stage. But the perception of a “self” (asmi māna) goes away in stages and disappear only at the Arahant stage.

- Only an Arahant has no saññā vipallāsa and asmi māna.
- That is also why we CANNOT say that “there is no-self.” Until the attainment of Arahanthood, there is a perception of a “self.”
- It is a wrong approach to analyze sensory experiences based on a “self” or “no-self.” Instead, we can explain everything in terms of causes and effects or Paticca Samuppāda. We will discuss this in the future.
Last edited by Lal on Sun Nov 03, 2019 7:04 pm, edited 2 times in total.

auto
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by auto » Sun Nov 03, 2019 3:51 pm

Self is more than an entire world, sensory stimuli, body, breath the self is not found in there.

There is some sort of seeing what sees things from this side and all things are in the other side. If you focus on your body or anywhere it will merge and there is some sort of dull boring field where nothing is happening then persisting on that field the craving arises at some point and the thoughts I need something(whatever it is) appears and then we cling to these thoughts and enforce the self view by our actions.

your long essays, rather your Treatises are Long
Lal wrote:
Sun Nov 03, 2019 11:36 am
2. In earlier posts, we discussed that INITIAL sensory experiences DO NOT require a “self.” However, they do not happen arbitrarily or randomly either. Those sensory experiences have causes (or reasons); they are kamma vipāka.
and
Lal wrote:
Sun Oct 27, 2019 10:59 am
8. All our discussions on the first half of the sutta led to the CRITICAL conclusion in the above verse. In simple terms, “there is no EXPERIENCER” experiencing those initial sensory inputs. As we remember, those INITIAL sensory inputs come in as kamma vipāka.
hmmmmmmm, you actually need the feeling of self so that you could move on from gross identifications like mating, mating is what closes the gap momentarily between this side and that side

You are the one who is experiencing sensory stimuli or sitting on a chair, no matter how shallow thoughts you are thinking that you are sitting on a chair. Issue is after the lalalal ulalla euphoric sense of I am sitting on a chair fades there is boredom, it is where vaci ceases and one is left with non-existence, no-way to tell if things exist or not.
Same way if you are doing something and suddenly come aware you then lose ability to remember unless you manually evoke mindfulness to get the mini-mating going on to feed your being so to stay on game.

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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by auto » Sun Nov 03, 2019 4:14 pm

Lal wrote:
Sun Nov 03, 2019 11:36 am
- Only an Arahant has no saññā vipallāsa and asmi māna.
- That is also why we CANNOT say that “there is no-self.” Until the attainment of Arahanthood, there is a perception of a “self.”
- It is a wrong approach to analyze sensory experiences based on a “self” or “no-self.” Instead, we can explain everything in terms of causes and effects or Paticca Samuppāda. We will discuss this in the future.
people not even talk about the self or question it, no philosophical talk either. When very drunk I have seen some go a bit ghost talk, but regular people eat, work, some entertainment then sleep.
The "me" time is when people want peace and quiet for a while, vacations, drinking alone etc.

Means the 'there is no self' its just a classroom model in reality it is not like that. Searching 'the self' specifically is just doing what these people but with a focus on. People who are dancing.. having fun etc are much more close than people who are working their a$$ off.

Lal
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal » Thu Nov 07, 2019 11:31 am

I need to clarify that #4 in the above post is not really correct. I was going to avoid discussing it until later, but questions come up in the puredhamma.net discussion forum, and I needed to clarify.

The time window to revise the above has expired. So, just assume that the subsection below to appear after bullet #4 in the above post:

Attā Translated as "Self" Is Not Correct

5. The Pāli word "attā" does not really mean "self" even though I used that translation above. That translation is quite common these days. We will go with that until we finish discussing Paticca Samuppāda because it does help to get the idea of sakkāya diṭṭhi across below. If I try to discuss the real meaning of attā right now, that could lead to confusion.

That is in fact why the Buddha refused to answer Vaccagotta's question about whether or not there is an "attā."  See, "Ānanda Sutta (SN 44.10)."

- Vacchagotta comes to the Buddha asked “kiṃ nu kho, bho gotama, atthattā” ti?” OR “Master Gotama, is it correct to say that there is an “attā”?”.
- Note that “atthattā” is “atthi attā” where “atthi” means “exists.” Vaccagotta meant in this case “attā” to be “self.” Thus, Vacchagotta meant: “Is it correct to say that a "self" exists?”
- The Buddha remained silent, and Vacchagotta asked the question again in the negative form. The second time, he asked: “Kiṃ pana, bho gotama, natthattā” ti?” or, “Master Gotama, is it not correct to say that there is a “self”?”. Seeing that the Buddha is refusing to answer his question, Vacchagotta got up and left.
- Note that “natthattā” is made up of three words: “na atthi attā,” which negates  “atthattā.”Just as these days, many people were confused about the Pali word "attā" and the Sanskrit word "ātma." The latter meaning is closer to a "soul"
- I will discuss this sutta when I will come back to discuss "attā" in detail, after discussing Paticca Samuppāda. By the way, Vaccagotta understood the concepts later on and became an Arahant too. 

auto
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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by auto » Thu Nov 07, 2019 2:44 pm

living person who knows about birth and death is illogical to maintain views like self exists or self doesn't exist.
https://suttacentral.net/sn35.167/en/sujato wrote:Nandikkhayena cattāro,
jīvakambavane duve;
Koṭṭhikena tayo vuttā,
micchā sakkāya attanoti.
There are multitudes of beings stored in the belly, wrongly believed to be oneself.

*realized i'm off-topic..

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Re: The teachings of Ven. Waharaka Abhayaratanalankara Thero

Post by Lal » Sun Nov 10, 2019 1:42 pm

Tanhā – The Origin of Suffering

Tanhā Is Attachment, Not Craving

1. Tanhā is a badly misunderstood Pāli word. The common translation is “craving,” and that is wrong. The craving usually is associated with a pleasurable ārammana.

- Tanhā means attachment to ANY ārammana. It could be something that one likes OR dislikes OR even neutral (it may be just curiosity.)
- We may attach to a beautiful object or a person to varying degrees. It could just mean pausing to take a “second look” at something. It could be a much stronger attachment like “falling in love at first sight” with a person.
- But we also stop and take a second look at a person who just got run over by a car and died. That is not a pleasant sight, but we still got “attached” to that sight. We may think about it for a little while and then forget about it. But seeing one’s worse enemy on the street will lead to a stronger “attachment.” One may generate repulsive thoughts and may even say something harsh to that person.
- The point is that tanhā leads to further “mind action” or “conscious thoughts” about a ārammana. We discussed that in the following post in this series: “Kāma Guṇa – Origin of Attachment (Tanhā).”

Tanhā – The Origin of Suffering

2. Tanhā is also the origin of future suffering. The Buddha defined the “origin of suffering” or “dukkha samudaya” as follows in his first discourse, “Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (SN 56.11)“: “Idaṃ kho pana, bhikkhave, dukkhasamudayaṃ ariyasaccaṃ—yāyaṃ taṇhā ponobbhavikā nandirāgasahagatā tatratatrābhinandinī, seyyathidaṃ—kāma taṇhā, bhava taṇhā, vibhava taṇhā.”

- Translated: “Bhikkhus, what is the Noble Truth of the origin of suffering—It is attachments (taṇhā) based on seeking delight (nandirāga) in various things here and there, which leads to rebirth —that is, attachments to sensual pleasures (kāma taṇhā), to the existence (bhava taṇhā), and the view of a single life (vibhava taṇhā.)
- The three types of tanhā discussed at “Kāma Tanhā, Bhava Tanhā, Vibhava Tanhā.” at puredhamma.net.

3. Interestingly, in the “Cūḷavedalla Sutta (MN 44), the same verse describes the origin of sakkāya diṭṭhi: “sakkāyasamudayo sakkāyasamudayo’ti, ayye, vuccati. Katamo nu kho, ayye, sakkāyasa¬mudayo vutto bhagavatā” ti? “Yāyaṃ, āvuso visākha, taṇhā ponobbhavikā nandīrāgasahagatā tatratatrābhinandinī, seyyathidaṃ—kāma taṇhā bhava taṇhā vibhava taṇhā; ayaṃ kho, āvuso visākha, sakkāyasamudayo vutto bhagavatā” ti.

- That is not surprising since all immoral actions originate with the wrong view that worldly pleasures need to be pursued at any cost.
- If one does strong immoral deeds (pāpa kamma), one will be eligible for suffering in the apāyās. Even the desire to enjoy sensory pleasures will bind one to the kāma loka. The desire for jhanic pleasures leads to getting trapped in rupa and arupa loka. But there is no long-term happiness anywhere in any realm.
- That is because regardless of where the next birth is, one is not free from the apāyās in the long run. The possibility of rebirth in the apāyās will be there until one attains the Sōtapanna stage by removing sakkāya diṭṭhi. All possible suffering ends when one fully comprehends dukkha samudaya at the Arahant stage. We will discuss that in detail in the future.

The Meaning of Tanhā (Pada Nirutti)

4. Many Pāli words have their meanings in the word itself. Uncovering the meaning of a word that way is “pada nirutti.” For example, “sakkāya” comes from “sath” + “kāya” or taking an aggregate of things or a collection (kāya) to be beneficial (sath.) That is why sakkāya diṭṭhi originates when one considers that the five aggregates to be one’s own and thus beneficial.

- Tanhā means getting “fused” or firmly attached (to an ārammana). The word tanhā comes from two words. “Tána” (pronounced like “thatch”) means “place” (තැන in Sinhala) and “” meaning getting fused/welded or attached (හා වීම in Sinhala). Note that “tan” in tanhā pronounced like in “thunder” and “” is pronounced like in “harm.”
- That is consistent with the meaning derived from the Chachakka Sutta. See “Kāma Guṇa – Origin of Attachment (Tanhā).”

Three Types of Tanhā

5. The verses in #2 and #3 refer to three types of tanhā. They are kāma tanhā, bhava tanhā, vibhava tanhā.

- Each category represents the origin of a particular way attachment can happen. As we can imagine, kāma tanhā originates due to our inherent kāma guna. There are sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touches, and dhammā that we like to experience. If access to such things is blocked, we again get attached, but this time with anger.
- Bhava tanhā arises in those who believe in rebirth. They would like to be born as a human, deva, or a Brahma based on their gati.
- Those who do not believe in rebirth have vibhava tanhā.
- Let us discuss them briefly.

Kāma Tanhā

6. In kāma lōka, all five physical sense faculties are present. Getting attached to anything via the five sense faculties is kāma tanhā.

- Furthermore, attachment arising from the desire to enjoy taste, smell, and body touch can happen only in kāma lōka. Those three require a “solid body” as we can imagine.
- In the rūpa lōkas, living beings do not have “solid bodies.” Yet, they can see and hear without having physical eyes or ears.
- Therefore, in rūpa lōkas, tanhā arise only due to sights and sounds. Thus an Anāgami, who will be born in a rūpa lōka has some rūpa tanhā and sadda tanhā because he/she may like to see a Buddha statue or listen to a discourse.
- In arūpa lōkas, there is only the mind. Therefore, an attachment can be only to dhammā.

Bhava Tanhā

7. Bhava tanhā arises from attachment to “any existence.” Thus bhava tanhā is present in kāma lōka, rūpa lōka, and arūpa lōka, i.e., all 31 realms.

- Even in the kāma lōka, there may be people who do not enjoy the “kāma” or sense pleasures; but they still want to live a quiet, peaceful life. They mostly have bhava tanhā. They may like to be in a secluded place, cultivating jhāna; that is their desired “bhava.” If they develop jhānas, they will be born in rūpa lōka or arūpa lōka due to their new “gati.”
- There are other subtle forms of “bhava” too. Some like to become famous, earn a title, to get a high-profile job or a responsibility, etc. These attachments are not associated with sensual pleasures. They are due to bhava tanhā.

Vibhava Tanhā

8. Vibhava tanhā arises from the wrong view of materialism (uccēda ditthi in the time of the Buddha; uccēda pronounced “uchchēda”). One believes that life ends at death. Here the mind is assumed to be a byproduct of the body (brain). And thus, when the body dies, that is the end of the story.

- Therefore one believes that one needs to enjoy all possible pleasures of this life before dying. Such a person would typically have kāma tanhā as well as vibhava tanhā.
- It is easy to have vibhava tanhā in modern society. That is especially true if one has not heard about the Buddha’s message about a more complex world with 31 realms and a rebirth process. Our human sensory faculties cannot access such “hidden” aspects of this world. One believes only what one can see.

Tanhā Does Not Directly Lead to Rebirth

As we have seen in previous posts, for an average human, SOME ārammana WILL automatically generate tanhā within a split second. Only in an Arahant, tanhā would NOT arise for ANY ārammana. That is a crucial message of the Chacakka Sutta (MN 148.)

9. However, tanhā does not directly lead to rebirth (new existence). Paticca Samuppāda does not say, “tanhā paccayā bhavo.” Instead, it is, “tanhā paccayā upādāna,” followed by “upādāna paccayā bhavo.”

- To make a new existence (bhava), the mind needs to “pull that ārammana close” and start generating conscious thoughts about it. That happens because one either likes it or dislikes it. That is the “tanhā paccayā upādāna” step.
- That “tanhā paccayā upādāna” step is a bit involved. When the mind attaches to a ārammana, it starts “examining” that ārammana. That “examination” involves vitakka/vicāra or vaci saṅkhāra.
- That is when one STARTS acting with avijjā and generate saṅkhāra (and thereby kamma viññāṇa via “saṅkhāra paccayā viññāṇa.”) That is the start of a new Paticca Samuppāda cycle.
- We will start discussing Paticca Samuppāda in the next post.

All relevant posts are at, “[html]https://puredhamma.net/difference-betwe ... n-of-life/[/html].” At Dhamma Wheel, the series started on Jun 29, 2019, on p. 73:viewtopic.php?f=46&t=26749&start=1080

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