God does not have the attributes of a Christian Providence, for it would derogate from His perfection to think about anything except what is perfect, i.e. Himself "It must be of itself that the divine thought thinks (since it is the most excellent of things),and its thinking is a thinking on thinking...." We must infer that God does not know of the existence of our sublunary world. Aristotle, like Spinoza, holds that, while men must love God, it is impossible that God should love men.
This statement assumes that humans have no perfection in them, that imperfection is an absolute, and hence we are unloveable.
God is not definable as "the unmoved mover." On the contrary, astronomical considerations lead to the conclusion that there are either forty-seven or fifty-five unmoved movers....
Aristotle finally concluded that there is only one unmoved mover. Thomas Aquinas stated that is because He is neither composed of quantitative parts, nor of matter and form, nor does His nature differ from His intelligence, nor does His essence differ from His existence, etc. Nor does He depend on the pre-existence of His parts to exist afterwards as a composite of those parts. Nor is there any potentiality in Him, nor cause of Him.
Motion, we are told, is the fulfilling of what exists potentially. This view, apart from other defects, is incompatible with the relativity of locomotion. When A moves relatively to B, B moves relatively to A, and there is no sense in saying that one of the two is in motion while the other is at rest. ... But it has turned out that this point of view cannot be applied to dead matter, and that, for the purposes of scientific physics, no conception of an "end" is useful, nor can any motion, in scientific strictness, be treated as other than relative.
The relativity of locomotion as well as the science of physics relate to material created things. They see no “end” because the end is outside their consideration. That is where philosophy picks up. Physics itself is not concerned with why we exist or why we change as in first origin.
this opinion, also, is not allowed to be professed by any Catholic philosopher or teacher of philosophy.
Not true. Aquinas is held in very high esteem, but improvements of his work were always welcomed.
Take the arguments professing to prove the existence of God. All of these, except the one from teleology in lifeless things, depend upon the supposed impossibility of a series having no first term. Every mathematician knows that there is no such impossibility; the series of negative integers ending with minus one is an instance to the contrary. But here again no Catholic is likely to abandon belief in God even if he becomes convinced that St. Thomas's arguments are bad ; he will invent other arguments, or take refuge in revelation.
Infinite series are intellectual constructs used as tools. Furthermore this does not address the real crux of the argument which relates to causality. This line never comes to be without a first plot of this line from which the series can run. It can be any number for the sake of this line.