Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Buddhist ethical conduct including the Five Precepts (Pañcasikkhāpada), and Eightfold Ethical Conduct (Aṭṭhasīla).
User avatar
Dhammarakkhito
Posts: 984
Joined: Tue Jun 27, 2017 7:31 am
Contact:

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by Dhammarakkhito » Tue Apr 24, 2018 7:27 am

perhaps, good question
"Just as the ocean has a single taste — that of salt — in the same way, this Dhamma-Vinaya has a single taste: that of release."
— Ud 5.5

https://www.facebook.com/noblebuddhadha ... 34/?type=3

http://seeingthroughthenet.net/
https://sites.google.com/site/santipada ... allytaught

User avatar
Cittasanto
Posts: 6598
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:31 pm
Location: Ellan Vannin
Contact:

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by Cittasanto » Tue Apr 24, 2018 7:55 am

Hi Steve.
There are a couple of angles one can look at this from within the texts so I will deal with them.
Acording to the wording of the precept and other textual explanations of the precept the situation is not a breach even without her permission. Although if the situation was reversed it would be a breach of the precept for her technically according to sutta explanations.

As the textual explanations deal and explain things from a male perspective so long as the woman he had intercourse with did not fall into a protected status (basically anywas who isn't single, of legal age, or in custody) he is able to sleep with. personally I think the rexerse is also true for women but the texts do not specifically support this idea in any way.

There are stories in the texts of wives arranging for cortesans to dealwith their household duties (including sexual needs of their spouse) while they observe the 8 precepts for a while, and this can be assumed to be similar enough to this situation you describe to demonstrate an exception here acording to the applicability the vinaya has when new situations arise.

There are, in this situation, other things to consider. regardless of permission and intelectual understanding of the situation, this can lead to jealousy and upset. So applying the vinaya standard for new situations for precepts to the lay precepts (which I will assume this case is in a monogomous society relationship understanding) it is still not a breach of the precepts as the permission to open the relationship up has been given thus general current social standards do not apply in considering the precepts.

I would caution though that this situation can become out of hand with emotional dificulties.

In Truth
Cittasanto
Blog, Suttas, Aj Chah, Facebook.

He who knows only his own side of the case knows little of that. His reasons may be good, and no one may have been able to refute them.
But if he is equally unable to refute the reasons on the opposite side, if he does not so much as know what they are, he has no ground for preferring either opinion …
...
He must be able to hear them from persons who actually believe them … he must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form.
John Stuart Mill

User avatar
Cittasanto
Posts: 6598
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:31 pm
Location: Ellan Vannin
Contact:

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by Cittasanto » Tue Apr 24, 2018 8:33 am

steve19800 wrote:
Tue Apr 24, 2018 7:23 am
Dhammarakkhito wrote:
Tue Apr 24, 2018 3:47 am
being prohibited by law.
I find this term is tricky, what does women who are "protected by law" mean?

If the local laws prohibiting your sexual behavior, for example, no sexual intercourse outside marriage but you do it, does it mean you have sexual intercourse with those who are "protected by law" therefore breaking the third precept?
I take it to mean in accordance with the laws of the land. so you make a good point with your question as adultary isn't necessarily illegal, i.e. the state wont prosecute seeking justice, but can be a legal justification for divorce... which I think most of the west hold that stance of legal justification and prosecutable in civil rather than criminal court without state sponsorship (it wont be a state funded legal case) the agreement of the spouse is the key factor here depending on the legal stance a country has.
In writing this I have read the wiki on adultery and particularly the part on punishments but have left my response above unedited in light of the information as I dont think it differs to abruptly from the information i learnt from reading that. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adultery# ... constructs

Kind Regards
Cittasanto
Blog, Suttas, Aj Chah, Facebook.

He who knows only his own side of the case knows little of that. His reasons may be good, and no one may have been able to refute them.
But if he is equally unable to refute the reasons on the opposite side, if he does not so much as know what they are, he has no ground for preferring either opinion …
...
He must be able to hear them from persons who actually believe them … he must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form.
John Stuart Mill

User avatar
pilgrim
Posts: 1491
Joined: Mon Oct 19, 2009 2:56 pm

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by pilgrim » Wed Apr 25, 2018 5:24 am

With or without consent of one's wife, sex outside marriage does not break the precepts as long as the sexual partner is not in the list of prohibited persons. That does not necessarily mean it is a skillful act. One can keep the 5 precepts yet live a very unskillful life. A person who is locked away in a jail cell in solitary confinement will not break the precepts. A drug pusher does not have a Right Livelihood but if he does not consume his own products he too does not break the precepts.

User avatar
JamesTheGiant
Posts: 289
Joined: Fri Jan 02, 2015 8:41 am
Location: New Zealand

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by JamesTheGiant » Wed Apr 25, 2018 8:10 am

What a totally bizarre topic.
There is absolutely no reason a husband has to have sex with another woman. Just use your hand! Far better to masturbate often, than cause all sorts of emotional entanglements and trouble.
How absurd. :shrug:
Then,
saturated with joy,
you will put an end to suffering and stress.
SN 9.11

User avatar
Pseudobabble
Posts: 466
Joined: Mon Apr 17, 2017 11:11 am
Location: London

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by Pseudobabble » Wed Apr 25, 2018 10:49 am

pilgrim wrote:
Wed Apr 25, 2018 5:24 am
With or without consent of one's wife, sex outside marriage does not break the precepts as long as the sexual partner is not in the list of prohibited persons. That does not necessarily mean it is a skillful act. One can keep the 5 precepts yet live a very unskillful life. A person who is locked away in a jail cell in solitary confinement will not break the precepts. A drug pusher does not have a Right Livelihood but if he does not consume his own products he too does not break the precepts.
Right. There's a legalistic side to the question, and a moral side. The legal side is satisfied by simple adherence or non-adherence to the precepts as stated. The moral side is much more subtle and complex, and would necessarily involve situation-specific adjustment.
"Does Master Gotama have any position at all?"

"A 'position,' Vaccha, is something that a Tathagata has done away with. What a Tathagata sees is this: 'Such is form, such its origination, such its disappearance; such is feeling, such its origination, such its disappearance; such is perception...such are fabrications...such is consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.'" - Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta


'Dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return.' - Genesis 3:19

User avatar
rightviewftw
Posts: 1067
Joined: Mon Jan 01, 2018 8:50 pm

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by rightviewftw » Wed Apr 25, 2018 4:15 pm

there are arranged marriages, love-less marriages, open relationships, not to mention people getting off on seeing their partner with others.
just saying...
How to Destroy any addiction
How to Meditate: Satipatthana Mahasi
Медитация Сатипаттхана Випассана
How To Develop Factors of Enlightenment & Perceptions
Ven. Kutukurunde Nanananda's (Developing Metta)
Tyranny of Words - An Introduction to General Semantics
Dhammatalks categorized by topic @ video.sirimangalo.org/
Ledi Sayadaw's Anapana Dipani (Samatha) @ ffmt.fr/articles/maitres/LediS/anapana-dipani.ledi-sayadaw.pdf
Parallel Dhammapada @ myweb.ncku.edu.tw/~lsn46/tipitaka/sutta/khuddaka/dhammapada/dhp-contrast-reading/dhp-contrast-reading-en/

User avatar
DooDoot
Posts: 1868
Joined: Tue Aug 08, 2017 11:06 pm

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by DooDoot » Wed Apr 25, 2018 9:06 pm

rightviewftw wrote:
Wed Apr 25, 2018 4:15 pm
there are arranged marriages, love-less marriages, open relationships, not to mention people getting off on seeing their partner with others.
just saying...
Maybe. But the ways of the world are not exactly the ways of Dhamma. AN 4.55. AN 4.53

User avatar
rightviewftw
Posts: 1067
Joined: Mon Jan 01, 2018 8:50 pm

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by rightviewftw » Wed Apr 25, 2018 9:16 pm

DooDoot wrote:
Wed Apr 25, 2018 9:06 pm
rightviewftw wrote:
Wed Apr 25, 2018 4:15 pm
there are arranged marriages, love-less marriages, open relationships, not to mention people getting off on seeing their partner with others.
just saying...
Maybe.
Oh i am pretty sure this is a fact.
How to Destroy any addiction
How to Meditate: Satipatthana Mahasi
Медитация Сатипаттхана Випассана
How To Develop Factors of Enlightenment & Perceptions
Ven. Kutukurunde Nanananda's (Developing Metta)
Tyranny of Words - An Introduction to General Semantics
Dhammatalks categorized by topic @ video.sirimangalo.org/
Ledi Sayadaw's Anapana Dipani (Samatha) @ ffmt.fr/articles/maitres/LediS/anapana-dipani.ledi-sayadaw.pdf
Parallel Dhammapada @ myweb.ncku.edu.tw/~lsn46/tipitaka/sutta/khuddaka/dhammapada/dhp-contrast-reading/dhp-contrast-reading-en/

User avatar
DooDoot
Posts: 1868
Joined: Tue Aug 08, 2017 11:06 pm

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by DooDoot » Wed Apr 25, 2018 9:19 pm

rightviewftw wrote:
Wed Apr 25, 2018 9:16 pm
Oh i am pretty sure this is a fact.
I'm pretty sure what I wrote is also fact, namely, the ways of Dhamma are not the same as the ways of the world (Mara).

User avatar
Cittasanto
Posts: 6598
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:31 pm
Location: Ellan Vannin
Contact:

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by Cittasanto » Fri Apr 27, 2018 10:34 pm

DooDoot wrote:
Wed Apr 25, 2018 9:19 pm
rightviewftw wrote:
Wed Apr 25, 2018 9:16 pm
Oh i am pretty sure this is a fact.
I'm pretty sure what I wrote is also fact, namely, the ways of Dhamma are not the same as the ways of the world (Mara).
lay people (what this thread is about) are part of the world, and this issue is relevant to a precept that deals with how a layperson should act in the world for people who are in a similare situation.

This thread isn't disrespecting anyone as it stems from the OP where the wife is fully aware and has potentially sugested it.

:focus:
Blog, Suttas, Aj Chah, Facebook.

He who knows only his own side of the case knows little of that. His reasons may be good, and no one may have been able to refute them.
But if he is equally unable to refute the reasons on the opposite side, if he does not so much as know what they are, he has no ground for preferring either opinion …
...
He must be able to hear them from persons who actually believe them … he must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form.
John Stuart Mill

User avatar
DooDoot
Posts: 1868
Joined: Tue Aug 08, 2017 11:06 pm

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by DooDoot » Sat Apr 28, 2018 1:56 am

Cittasanto wrote:
Fri Apr 27, 2018 10:34 pm
lay people (what this thread is about) are part of the world...
The term "the world" has different meanings. For example, just because sexual promiscuity, pedophilia or lying is practised by "the world" does not mean lay Buddhists should practise promiscuity, pedophilia or lying.
Cittasanto wrote:
Fri Apr 27, 2018 10:34 pm
this issue is relevant to a precept that deals with how a layperson should act in the world for people who are in a similare situation.
The man might be stuck with this woman due to actions he performed in a past life. Its sounds like you don't believe in kamma-vipaka; which MN 117 says is wrong view in Buddhism. Instead of practising the Dhamma of compassion (karuna); it seems the defilement of lust (raga) that leads to rebirth in animal hungry ghost & hell realms is being promoted here.
Bhikkhus, a god, a human or any other good state would not be evident from actions born of greed (lust), hate and delusion. Yet, bhikkhus, from actions born of greed (lust), hate and delusion a hellish being, an animal birth a ghostly birth or some other bad state would be evident.

AN 6.39

Garrib
Posts: 439
Joined: Mon May 30, 2016 8:35 pm

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by Garrib » Sat Apr 28, 2018 4:19 am

It just sounds like something to be avoided.

User avatar
rightviewftw
Posts: 1067
Joined: Mon Jan 01, 2018 8:50 pm

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by rightviewftw » Sat Apr 28, 2018 5:35 am

Garrib wrote:
Sat Apr 28, 2018 4:19 am
It just sounds like something to be avoided.
:goodpost:
How to Destroy any addiction
How to Meditate: Satipatthana Mahasi
Медитация Сатипаттхана Випассана
How To Develop Factors of Enlightenment & Perceptions
Ven. Kutukurunde Nanananda's (Developing Metta)
Tyranny of Words - An Introduction to General Semantics
Dhammatalks categorized by topic @ video.sirimangalo.org/
Ledi Sayadaw's Anapana Dipani (Samatha) @ ffmt.fr/articles/maitres/LediS/anapana-dipani.ledi-sayadaw.pdf
Parallel Dhammapada @ myweb.ncku.edu.tw/~lsn46/tipitaka/sutta/khuddaka/dhammapada/dhp-contrast-reading/dhp-contrast-reading-en/

User avatar
Cittasanto
Posts: 6598
Joined: Tue Dec 30, 2008 10:31 pm
Location: Ellan Vannin
Contact:

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by Cittasanto » Mon Apr 30, 2018 8:30 pm

DooDoot wrote:
Sat Apr 28, 2018 1:56 am
Cittasanto wrote:
Fri Apr 27, 2018 10:34 pm
lay people (what this thread is about) are part of the world...
The term "the world" has different meanings. For example, just because sexual promiscuity, pedophilia or lying is practised by "the world" does not mean lay Buddhists should practise promiscuity, pedophilia or lying.
no, however that argument doesn't negate the situation being put forward. One where the conversation could easily have been brought up by the wife.
Cittasanto wrote:
Fri Apr 27, 2018 10:34 pm
this issue is relevant to a precept that deals with how a layperson should act in the world for people who are in a similare situation.
The man might be stuck with this woman due to actions he performed in a past life. Its sounds like you don't believe in kamma-vipaka; which MN 117 says is wrong view in Buddhism. Instead of practising the Dhamma of compassion (karuna); it seems the defilement of lust (raga) that leads to rebirth in animal hungry ghost & hell realms is being promoted here.
not at all. there could be a situation where the wife has been left infertile and the situation arose as a means to carry on the husbands bloodline and for them both to stay together?

you speak of compassion, yet show none for both sides eaqually? there are two people here and both have needs, wants and desires. the Buddha never said all could or should follow the renunciate life.

Kind Regards
Cittasanto
Blog, Suttas, Aj Chah, Facebook.

He who knows only his own side of the case knows little of that. His reasons may be good, and no one may have been able to refute them.
But if he is equally unable to refute the reasons on the opposite side, if he does not so much as know what they are, he has no ground for preferring either opinion …
...
He must be able to hear them from persons who actually believe them … he must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form.
John Stuart Mill

User avatar
DooDoot
Posts: 1868
Joined: Tue Aug 08, 2017 11:06 pm

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by DooDoot » Mon Apr 30, 2018 8:54 pm

Cittasanto wrote:
Mon Apr 30, 2018 8:30 pm
no, however that argument doesn't negate the situation being put forward. One where the conversation could easily have been brought up by the wife.
This appears to still not change the lack of consideration about who & what will this other woman be and the consequences upon her. You seem to have the view that there is a pool of women out there for exploitation or use by men who need to satisfy random male sexual lusts. I continue to discern a lack of empathy for women here & merely a macho male orientated, even pornographic, outlook of male self-cherishing. For example, in the Buddha's time, I imagine only a wealthy man could consider such an arrangement where they could buy & financially support a mistress or courtesan or sex slave.
Cittasanto wrote:
Fri Apr 27, 2018 10:34 pm
not at all.
So like a Buddha, are you declaring here to know the workings of kamma over billions of lifetimes of billions of beings?
Cittasanto wrote:
Fri Apr 27, 2018 10:34 pm
there could be a situation where the wife has been left infertile and the situation arose as a means to carry on the husbands bloodline and for them both to stay together?
"Could be", you say, even though it appears you are not confident of the real facts of the kammic inheritence that lead to the present reincarnation? So you appear here to dismiss the doctrine of kamma & rebirth but fall back on a doctrine similar to the Protestant King Henry VIII of England who changed the laws of God so he could divorce his infertile wives (rather than behead them, as he previously did)?

Recall what happened in the Jewish Old Testament when Abraham believed the wife has been left infertile and the situation arose as a means to carry on the husbands bloodline. His wife Sarah gave Abraham her slave girl Hagi and Abraham & Hagi had sex together to bear a son (who eventually became the patriarch of the Muslims). Abraham & Sarah were proved totally wrong in their judgments of kamma & reincarnation because God himself had to tell them they were wrong; that the heir born via the slave girl Hagi was not the bloodline of the Chosen People. Even Sarah bore the heir of the Chosen People when she was 90 or 100 years old or similar age.
Cittasanto wrote:
Fri Apr 27, 2018 10:34 pm
you speak of compassion, yet show none for both sides equally?
Since when was compassion encouraging people to engage in mere sexual lust? Where does the Dhamma say this? Dhamma says any action motived purely by lust is unwholesome and leads to rebirth in the lower worlds. You claim to speak of compassion for both sides equally yet show none to the theoretical 3rd party, who you appear to completely sexually objectify, like in a pornographic movie, and strip the 3rd party of any emotional feeling & response when/as being the provider of sexual services to this man who is unable to accept his kammic reincarnation & inheritance.
Cittasanto wrote:
Fri Apr 27, 2018 10:34 pm
there are two people here and both have needs, wants and desires.
Where was it ever said the wife has a "need"? Also, as I mentioned a number of times, there are more than two people here. You keep asserting there are two people in this arrangement when there is obviously at least three people.
Cittasanto wrote:
Fri Apr 27, 2018 10:34 pm
the Buddha never said all could or should follow the renunciate life.
The Buddha never said women should be used as mere sex objects. The Buddha condemned womanizing, sexual promiscuity & having sex with prostitutes. Therefore, returning to my original post on this topic, my original question remains unanswered, namely:
DooDoot wrote:
Mon Apr 23, 2018 12:03 pm

This sounds very theoretical. Who or what exactly is this "other woman"? Does this other woman have any feelings, emotions & eventually expectations when having sex with the man? Or is the "other woman" merely a series of different prostitutes? :shrug:
:mrgreen:

Last edited by DooDoot on Mon Apr 30, 2018 9:14 pm, edited 3 times in total.

User avatar
DooDoot
Posts: 1868
Joined: Tue Aug 08, 2017 11:06 pm

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by DooDoot » Mon Apr 30, 2018 9:24 pm

rightviewftw wrote:
Mon Apr 30, 2018 9:09 pm
i am tired of females objectifying me... they keep looking at me as a man or worse a baby making prospect
Sure. But if you don't want this, just give women up. I gave women up many years ago but women continue objectify me all the time; such as hug me without my permission. Since I let them hug me but I do not respond emotionally in return, no harm is done. That you believe women view you as a baby making prospect should help you develop a more wholesome view of women; that what women are often really interested in is babies & families (as the Buddha seemed to teach in AN 6.52). Why do you think celibacy is so easy for the Noble Ones? What is there to desire or crave from women when they are mostly a burden of obligations & responsibilities?
rightviewftw wrote:
Mon Apr 30, 2018 9:09 pm
instead of the 31 bodyparts, let alone the 6 elements.
Dhamma is for you to practise rather than for most women, who often have natural, often uncontrollable urge & duty, to copulate & reproduce.
rightviewftw wrote:
Mon Apr 30, 2018 9:09 pm
No wonder "how to get pregnant" is among the top internet searches
Is it? Lol. A really cute girl, new young single mum, has moved in near me and my good friend said to me: "I was her school teacher" and I replied to him: "But you didn't teach her about birth control". Not that I would teach girls about birth control but rather how to understand & fulfill their natural desires wholesomely.
rightviewftw wrote:
Mon Apr 30, 2018 9:09 pm
Did i tell you about the time a woman raped me... beware of them wemen...
Lol... you must be a weakling or was otherwise intoxicated. Lol... the benefits of the 5th precept. :jumping:
This was said by the Blessed One who knows & sees, worthy and rightly self-awakened: 'Come now, monks: with regard to women who are old enough to be your mother, establish the attitude you would have toward your mother. With regard to women who are old enough to be your sister, establish the attitude you'd have toward a sister. With regard to women who are young enough to be your daughter, establish the attitude you'd have toward a daughter.' This is one reason, this is one cause, great king, why young monks — black-haired, endowed with the blessings of youth in the first stage of life — without having played with sensual pleasures nevertheless follow the lifelong chaste life, perfect & pure, and make it last their entire lives.

Bharadvaja Sutta

User avatar
binocular
Posts: 5282
Joined: Sat Jan 17, 2009 11:13 pm

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by binocular » Mon Apr 30, 2018 9:37 pm

Cittasanto wrote:
Mon Apr 30, 2018 8:30 pm
you speak of compassion, yet show none for both sides eaqually? there are two people here and both have needs, wants and desires.
So much for "in sickness and in health".

Anyway, I've heard from Ven. Dhammanando that in Thailand, the type of arrangement as mentioned in the OP actually exists (although I presume only in the wealthier class). Namely, if the wife doesn't want to have as much sex as her husband, she finds for him a mistress who has sex with him. This mistress then lives with them; in her status, she is above the servants, but not equal to the spouses.
the Buddha never said all could or should follow the renunciate life.
The Buddha also never said that sex is a "biological need".

User avatar
binocular
Posts: 5282
Joined: Sat Jan 17, 2009 11:13 pm

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by binocular » Mon Apr 30, 2018 9:42 pm

DooDoot wrote:
Mon Apr 23, 2018 12:03 pm
This sounds very theoretical. Who or what exactly is this "other woman"? Does this other woman have any feelings, emotions & eventually expectations when having sex with the man? Or is the "other woman" merely a series of different prostitutes?
When talking about sex as a "biological need", feelings, emotions, morality don't enter the picture.

User avatar
rightviewftw
Posts: 1067
Joined: Mon Jan 01, 2018 8:50 pm

Re: Sexual intercourse with other woman with the consent of wife

Post by rightviewftw » Mon Apr 30, 2018 9:52 pm

I was trolling a bit , it was true albeit a hyperbole of a post. I do not agree with your assertion that people are hostile to women here or sexually obsessed. My impression is that there is next to none sex talk here in general and by far most men are on the blue pill spectrum. I don't think i could name anybody hostile to women or even a single MRA/MGTOW person. Actually whenever people bring up non-vanilla sexuality it is always criticized by conservatives like it is north korea or something and afaik nobody has expressed categorical opposition to female ordination.
DooDoot wrote:
Mon Apr 30, 2018 9:24 pm
Lol... you must be a weakling or was otherwise intoxicated. Lol... the benefits of the 5th precept. :jumping:
Neither weakling nor intoxicated, i was sleeping actually.
DooDoot wrote:
Mon Apr 30, 2018 9:24 pm
Dhamma is for you to practise rather than for most women, who often have natural, often uncontrollable urge & duty, to copulate & reproduce.
If you are trying to champion for feminismus you are doing it wrong imho :tongue:
Last edited by rightviewftw on Mon Apr 30, 2018 10:07 pm, edited 2 times in total.
How to Destroy any addiction
How to Meditate: Satipatthana Mahasi
Медитация Сатипаттхана Випассана
How To Develop Factors of Enlightenment & Perceptions
Ven. Kutukurunde Nanananda's (Developing Metta)
Tyranny of Words - An Introduction to General Semantics
Dhammatalks categorized by topic @ video.sirimangalo.org/
Ledi Sayadaw's Anapana Dipani (Samatha) @ ffmt.fr/articles/maitres/LediS/anapana-dipani.ledi-sayadaw.pdf
Parallel Dhammapada @ myweb.ncku.edu.tw/~lsn46/tipitaka/sutta/khuddaka/dhammapada/dhp-contrast-reading/dhp-contrast-reading-en/

Post Reply

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 16 guests