There is no such thing as "vipassana meditation"?

General discussion of issues related to Theravada Meditation, e.g. meditation postures, developing a regular sitting practice, skillfully relating to difficulties and hindrances, etc.
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squizzlebizzle
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There is no such thing as "vipassana meditation"?

Post by squizzlebizzle » Fri Mar 01, 2019 11:51 pm

I am trying to practice for stream entry. I want to follow the Buddha's technique as he taught it.

One of the trickiest aspects of this is to understand - what is the right way to practice meditation?

I have been reading various practices of meditation, trying to find the "right" practice. I attended a 10-day Goenka vipassana meditation retreat. Afterwards I did some investigation and I found out that there is no such thing as "Vipassana meditation in the Buddha's tradition."

Here is how Thanissaro Bhikkhu explains it:

"Only rarely do they make use of the word vipassana — a sharp contrast to their frequent use of the word jhana. When they depict the Buddha telling his disciples to go meditate, they never quote him as saying "go do vipassana," but always "go do jhana." And they never equate the word vipassana with any mindfulness techniques. In the few instances where they do mention vipassana, they almost always pair it with samatha — not as two alternative methods, but as two qualities of mind that a person may "gain" or "be endowed with," and that should be developed together."

Source:

https://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/aut ... etool.html

So, Vipassana isn't a "meditation technique." It's a quality of mind, that roughly means "clear seeing."

But it seems everyone seems not to know this. It is very common to see people, including foremost experts in Theravada, to act like "vipassana meditation" was something the Buddha taught. I don't understand.

Ajahn Chah of the Thai Forest Tradition explained it in the same way. Here are some quotes from "The Collected Teachings of Ajahn Chah:"

"If you examine how concentration and wisdom arise, you will know the truth for yourself. These days many people cling to the words. They call their practice vipassanā. Samatha is looked down on. Or they call their practice samatha. It is essential to do samatha before vipassanā, they say. All this is silly. Don’t bother to think about it in this way. Simply do the practice and you’ll see for yourself."

"We need to develop a mind that has tranquillity together with wisdom in control of things. We talk about sīla, samādhi, paññā, and about samatha meditation and vipassanā meditation. But they are really all the same matter. They are the same, but we divide them into different categories and get confused."

"Meditation is like a single stick of wood. Insight (vipassanā) is one end of the stick and serenity (samatha) the other. If we pick it up, does only one end come up or do both? When anyone picks up a stick both ends rise together. Which part then is vipassanā, and which is samatha? Where does one end and the other begin? They are both the mind."

So, it seems there is no such thing as "vipassana meditation." This is just a massive institutional confusion about what the buddha taught. Can it really be that what all the major "vipassana" teachers are teaching, is not authentic to the Buddha's teachings? How could it be that they all take one end of the stick as the one that counts, other end of the stick be damned? Something does not add up here.

This leaves a would-be disciple unclear: what is the *right* practice of meditation, if we are to practice just one form of meditation and not artificially chop "shamatha" and "vipassana" into pieces, which is, in the words of Ajahn Chah, "silly"?

Well, right concentration is Jhana. But I cannot "go do jhana" as the buddha asked. What, then, is "pre-jhana"? Jhana for dummies? I have been reading Each and Every Breath by TB and trying to practice this. But it still leaves me scratching my head a bit as to what "Vipassana" really means as far as daily practice goes. If a single meditation practice can develop all the qualities necessary to progress, how can we recognize that this meditation practice is checking all the Buddha's boxes for correct practice?

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Re: There is no such thing as "vipassana meditation"?

Post by retrofuturist » Sat Mar 02, 2019 12:00 am

Greetings,
squizzlebizzle wrote:
Fri Mar 01, 2019 11:51 pm
So, Vipassana isn't a "meditation technique." It's a quality of mind, that roughly means "clear seeing."

But it seems everyone seems not to know this. It is very common to see people, including foremost experts in Theravada, to act like "vipassana meditation" was something the Buddha taught. I don't understand.
Many people have already heavily invested in such things prior to becoming aware of this. Unsurprisingly, the reactions to this news are mixed, and the news is often unwelcome.
squizzlebizzle wrote:
Fri Mar 01, 2019 11:51 pm
But it still leaves me scratching my head a bit as to what "Vipassana" really means as far as daily practice goes. If a single meditation practice can develop all the qualities necessary to progress, how can we recognize that this meditation practice is checking all the Buddha's boxes for correct practice?
As a daily practice, it means to see things as they really are, which I personally believe is best done through seeing in accordance with paticcasamuppada, although your mileage may vary. Satipatthana is also another very good way, so long as you take the sutta on its own terms, and not through the lens of someone using the sutta to affirm the validity of their preferred "vipassana technique".

One thing to keep in mind though is that seeing name-and-form (as it really is) as arisen name-and-form, rather than (as it really isn't) as an "object" is not easily done when societal interaction and worldly tasks are based around "objects" and associated concepts. Thus, "meditation" is actually taking the time to cease worldly obligations and interactions, so you can "clearly see", without any obligation or necessity to falsely see "things" "as objects". Thus the Satipatthana prelude of "putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world", and the refrain that "he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world."

Metta,
Paul. :)
"The uprooting of identity is seen by the noble ones as pleasurable; but this contradicts what the whole world sees." (Snp 3.12)

"It is natural that one who knows and sees things as they really are is disenchanted and dispassionate." (AN 10.2)

“Truth does not change according to our ability to stomach it.” (Flannery O'Connor)

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Re: There is no such thing as "vipassana meditation"?

Post by SarathW » Sat Mar 02, 2019 12:11 am

I am trying to practice for stream entry
Just follow the Noble Eightfold Path.
The rest will fall in to place itself.
“As the lamp consumes oil, the path realises Nibbana”

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Lankamed
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Re: There is no such thing as "vipassana meditation"?

Post by Lankamed » Sat Mar 02, 2019 2:00 am

Hello squizzlebizzle,

Lookup "Sathipattana Meditation". It's the signature Buddhist meditation method to gain vipassana. There are many Sathipattana techniques like Mahasi method, Thai forest....
In Sathipattana sutra Buddha promises Anagamitha to practitioners who properly exert themselves.


Opinion, experience and possibly OT

Ive found that Mahasi technique/mental noting works very well for me. (And you may outgrow mental noting entirely or give it up and take it up again time to time as your Sati developes).
Last year I visited Bhikku Katukurunde Nanananda (just 14 days before his death :candle: ) and he affirmed the method I follow and gave more instruction.

He is more of a "this is the path, follow it.
Mahasi kamattana acharyas are like "hmm you are on right path, go do more and report back". They will intervene to course correct.

IMO Sathipattana, as it grows become slightly personalized. It will develope in to a personal system based on your clingings and various other things . (Ex - some folk experience anithya intensively while some experience anatta, some aquire strong samadhi while others develop weak passable samadhi).

Only thing that matters is choosing the right method & keep going :meditate:

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Re: There is no such thing as "vipassana meditation"?

Post by retrofuturist » Sat Mar 02, 2019 2:03 am

Greetings,
Lankamed wrote:
Sat Mar 02, 2019 2:00 am
Last year I visited Bhikku Katukurunde Nanananda (just 14 days before his death :candle: ) and he affirmed the method I follow and gave more instruction.

He is more of a "this is the path, follow it.
Mahasi kamattana acharyas are like "hmm you are on right path, go do more and report back". They will intervene to course correct.
Thank you for sharing.

:candle:

Metta,
Paul. :)
"The uprooting of identity is seen by the noble ones as pleasurable; but this contradicts what the whole world sees." (Snp 3.12)

"It is natural that one who knows and sees things as they really are is disenchanted and dispassionate." (AN 10.2)

“Truth does not change according to our ability to stomach it.” (Flannery O'Connor)

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Re: There is no such thing as "vipassana meditation"?

Post by befriend » Sat Mar 02, 2019 3:05 am

from venerable analayo's satipatthana meditation a practice guide.. In the early discourses, tranquility and insight are not distinguished according to whether our meditation object is a concept or (what is considered to be) an ultamite reality. In fact tranquility and insight are not even set apart as seperate meditation practices. Instead, they are complementary qualities of meditative cultivation. Some practices can emphasize one or the other of these two, and with still others tranquility and insight can be cultivated in conjunction. The only ultamite reality recognized in early Buddhism is nibbana."
Take care of mindfulness and mindfulness will take care of you.

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Re: There is no such thing as "vipassana meditation"?

Post by Srilankaputra » Sat Mar 02, 2019 5:05 am

i think the nettippakarana untangles this tangle. The path can be categorised under Sila, Samadhi and Panna. Nettippakarana defines Samatha and Vipassana as the following;

Samatha = Sila + Samadhi
Vipassana = Panna

Samatha and vipassana taken together constitute the whole of the path.

vipassana type practices are described in the patisambida magga,
Aniccānupassanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā javanapaññaṃ paripūreti.
Dukkhānupassanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā nibbedhikapaññaṃ paripūreti.
Anattānupassanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā mahāpaññaṃ paripūreti.
Nibbidānupassanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā tikkhapaññaṃ paripūreti.
Virāgānupassanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā vipulapaññaṃ paripūreti.
Nirodhānupassanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā gambhīrapaññaṃ paripūreti.
Paṭinissaggānupassanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā asāmantapaññaṃ paripūreti.
Imā satta paññā bhāvitā bahulīkatā paṇḍiccaṃ paripūrenti.
Imā aṭṭha paññā bhāvitā bahulīkatā puthupaññaṃ paripūrenti.
Imā nava paññā bhāvitā bahulīkatā hāsapaññaṃ paripūrenti.
Question is there a sutta basis for these practices. i believe there is. One of the most famous is the Girimananda sutta;

And what is the perception of impermanence?
Katamā cānanda, aniccasaññā?

It’s when a mendicant has gone to a wilderness, or to the root of a tree, or to an empty hut, and reflects like this:
Idhānanda, bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā iti paṭisañcikkhati:

‘Form, feeling, perception, choices, and consciousness are impermanent.’
‘rūpaṃ aniccaṃ, vedanā aniccā, saññā aniccā, saṅkhārā aniccā, viññāṇaṃ aniccan’ti.

And so they meditate observing impermanence in the five grasping aggregates.
Iti imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu aniccānupassī viharati.

This is called the perception of impermanence.
Ayaṃ vuccatānanda, aniccasaññā.
.
.
And what is the perception of not-self?
Katamā cānanda, anattasaññā?

It’s when a mendicant has gone to a wilderness, or to the root of a tree, or to an empty hut, and reflects like this:
Idhānanda, bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā iti paṭisañcikkhati:

‘The eye and sights, ear and sounds, nose and smells, tongue and tastes, body and touches, and mind and thoughts are not-self.’
‘cakkhu anattā, rūpā anattā, sotaṃ anattā, saddā anattā, ghānaṃ anattā, gandhā anattā, jivhā anattā, rasā anattā, kāyā anattā, phoṭṭhabbā anattā, mano anattā, dhammā anattā’ti.

And so they meditate observing not-self in the six interior and exterior sense fields.
Iti imesu chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu anattānupassī viharati.

This is called the perception of not-self.
Ayaṃ vuccatānanda, anattasaññā.
.
.
And what is the perception of drawbacks?
Katamā cānanda, ādīnavasaññā?

It’s when a mendicant has gone to a wilderness, or to the root of a tree, or to an empty hut, and reflects like this:
Idhānanda, bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā iti paṭisañcikkhati:

‘This body has much suffering and many drawbacks. For this body is beset with many kinds of affliction, such as the following.
‘bahudukkho kho ayaṃ kāyo bahuādīnavo. Iti imasmiṃ kāye vividhā ābādhā uppajjanti, seyyathidaṃ—

Diseases of the eye, inner ear, nose, tongue, body, head, outer ear, mouth, teeth, and lips. Cough, asthma, catarrh, inflammation, fever, stomach ache, fainting, dysentery, gastric pain, cholera, leprosy, boils, eczema, tuberculosis, epilepsy,
herpes, itch, scabs, smallpox, scabies, hemorrhage, diabetes, piles, pimples, and ulcers. Afflictions stemming from disorders of bile, phlegm, wind, or their conjunction. Afflictions caused by change in weather, by not taking care of yourself, by overexertion, or as the result of past deeds. Cold, heat, hunger, thirst, defecation, and urination.’
cakkhurogo sotarogo ghānarogo jivhārogo kāyarogo sīsarogo kaṇṇarogo mukharogo dantarogo oṭṭharogo kāso sāso pināso ḍāho jaro kucchirogo mucchā pakkhandikā sūlā visūcikā kuṭṭhaṃ gaṇḍo kilāso soso apamāro daddu kaṇḍu kacchu nakhasā vitacchikā lohitaṃ pittaṃ madhumeho aṃsā piḷakā bhagandalā pittasamuṭṭhānā ābādhā semhasamuṭṭhānā ābādhā vātasamuṭṭhānā ābādhā sannipātikā ābādhā utupariṇāmajā ābādhā visamaparihārajā ābādhā opakkamikā ābādhā kammavipākajā ābādhā sītaṃ uṇhaṃ jighacchā pipāsā uccāro passāvo’ti.

And so they meditate observing drawbacks in this body.
Iti imasmiṃ kāye ādīnavānupassī viharati.

This is called the perception of drawbacks.
Ayaṃ vuccatānanda, ādīnavasaññā.
.
.
And what is the perception of fading away?
Katamā cānanda, virāgasaññā?

It’s when a mendicant has gone to a wilderness, or to the root of a tree, or to an empty hut, and reflects like this:
Idhānanda, bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā iti paṭisañcikkhati:

‘This is peaceful; this is sublime—that is, the stilling of all activities, the letting go of all attachments, the ending of craving, fading away, extinguishment.’
‘etaṃ santaṃ etaṃ paṇītaṃ yadidaṃ sabbasaṅkhārasamatho sabbūpadhippaṭinissaggo taṇhākkhayo virāgo nibbānan’ti.

This is called the perception of fading away.
Ayaṃ vuccatānanda, virāgasaññā.
.
.
And what is the perception of cessation?
Katamā cānanda, nirodhasaññā?

It’s when a mendicant has gone to a wilderness, or to the root of a tree, or to an empty hut, and reflects like this:
Idhānanda, bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā iti paṭisañcikkhati:

‘This is peaceful; this is sublime—that is, the stilling of all activities, the letting go of all attachments, the ending of craving, cessation, extinguishment.’
‘etaṃ santaṃ etaṃ paṇītaṃ yadidaṃ sabbasaṅkhārasamatho sabbūpadhippaṭinissaggo taṇhākkhayo nirodho nibbānan’ti.

This is called the perception of cessation.
Ayaṃ vuccatānanda, nirodhasaññā.
.
.
And what is the perception of dissatisfaction with the whole world?
Katamā cānanda, sabbaloke anabhiratasaññā?

It’s when a mendicant lives giving up and not grasping on to the attraction and grasping to the world, the mental fixation, insistence, and underlying tendencies.
Idhānanda, bhikkhu ye loke upādānā cetaso adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā, te pajahanto viharati anupādiyanto.

This is called the perception of dissatisfaction with the whole world.
Ayaṃ vuccatānanda, sabbaloke anabhiratasaññā.
.
.
And what is the perception of non-desire for all conditions?
Katamā cānanda, sabbasaṅkhāresu anicchāsaññā?

It’s when a mendicant is horrified, repelled, and disgusted with all conditions.
Idhānanda, bhikkhu sabbasaṅkhāresu aṭṭīyati harāyati jigucchati.

This is called the perception of non-desire for all conditions.
Ayaṃ vuccatānanda, sabbasaṅkhāresu anicchāsaññā.
.
.
https://suttacentral.net/an10.60/en/sujato
O seeing one,we for refuge go to thee!
O mighty sage do thou our teacher be!

Paccuppannañca yo dhammaṃ,
Tattha tattha vipassati

“Yato yato mano nivāraye,
Na dukkhameti naṃ tato tato;
Sa sabbato mano nivāraye,
Sa sabbato dukkhā pamuccatī”ti.

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Re: There is no such thing as "vipassana meditation"?

Post by pilgrim » Sat Mar 02, 2019 6:13 am

"These two qualities are conducive to knowledge. Which two? Tranquillity (samatha) & insight (vipassana).

"When tranquillity is developed, what purpose does it serve? The mind is developed. And when the mind is developed, what purpose does it serve? Desire is abandoned.

"When insight is developed, what purpose does it serve? Wisdom is developed. And when wisdom is developed, what purpose does it serve? Ignorance is abandoned.

"Defiled by desire, the mind is not released. Defiled by ignorance, wisdom does not develop. Thus with the absence of desire there is liberation of the mind. With the absence of ignorance there is liberation by wisdom."
~ Vijja-bhagiya Sutta, AN 2.32

All the suttas that instruct one to gain insight into the 5 khandas, into dukkhha, anicca , anatta, etc are for the purposes of developing the quality of Vipassana in one's mind. In recent times the term "Vipassana meditation" is loosely applied to all these meditation instructions and techniques that develop Vipassana.

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Re: There is no such thing as "vipassana meditation"?

Post by DooDoot » Sat Mar 02, 2019 12:07 pm

SarathW wrote:
Sat Mar 02, 2019 12:11 am
Just follow the Noble Eightfold Path.
The rest will fall in to place itself.
:shock: :goodpost: exactly as the real suttas say....
Any view belonging to one who has come to be like this is his right view. Any resolve, his right resolve. Any effort, his right effort. Any mindfulness, his right mindfulness. Any concentration, his right concentration: just as earlier his actions, speech, & livelihood were already well-purified. Thus for him, having thus developed (bhāvayato) the noble eightfold path, the four frames of reference go to the culmination of their development (bhāvanāpāripūriṃ). The four right exertions... the four bases of power... the five faculties... the five strengths... the seven factors for Awakening go to the culmination of their development (bhāvanāpāripūriṃ). [And] for him these two qualities occur in tandem: tranquillity & insight (samatho ca vipassanā ca).

https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitak ... .than.html
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Re: There is no such thing as "vipassana meditation"?

Post by constellation » Sat Mar 02, 2019 7:32 pm

There is a bare-insight-vehicle individual, or a tranquility-vehicle individual. What does it mean? There is dhamma and Dhamma. What does it mean? There is momentary concentration and the (five aggregates)'s concentration aggregate. What does it mean? There is access constellation and the (five aggregates)'s constellation aggregate. What does it mean? Once again, there is dhamma and Dhamma. What does it mean? Constellation-assistance-foundation.

Essential Points to Note
In vipassanā meditation, it is to meditate vipassanā;
1. sometimes on internal (= internal five khandha)
2. sometimes on external (= external five khandha and inanimate thing anupādinna rūpa)
3. sometimes on rūpa (= bhūta rūpa and upādā rūpa)
4. sometimes on nāma (= four nāma khandha)
5. sometimes on anicca characteristic
6. sometimes on dukkha characteristic
7. sometimes on anattā characteristics, alternately.
Take note that it is not the method to meditate on whatever is arising that one wants without separating and differentiating between concept and ultimate reality. That is, concepts are not the object of vipassanā, only ultimate reality are the object of vipassanā.

* idappaccayatā-paṭiccasamuppādo (conditionality-dependent arising) upādāna (clinging, attachment) paññati realm ( concepts )( surjective reality )

* idappaccayatā-paṭiccasamuppādo (conditionality-dependent arising) upādāna (clinging, attachment) paramattha sacca realm (ultimate reality)(after self feeding world, being the ultimate or basic constituents of matter (ultimate materiality) and image creativeness (ultimate mentality, imagination(insight range(vipassanā·cāra))), and their causes)( subjective and objective reality )

The Three Characteristics

1. A meditator firstly begin to meditate vipassanā saṅkhāradhamma as anicca (having discerned by insight the nature of arising and then perished away) however vuṭṭhānagāminivipassanā cannot arise by meditating only as anicca. It must also be meditated upon dukkha (having discerned by insight the nature of being oppressed by constant arising and perishing away) and as anattā (having discerned by insight the nature of having no indestructible essence). Therefore he meditates as dukkha and anattā also. If vuṭṭhānagāminivipassanā arise while meditating on saṅkhāradhamma as anicca, it means that person having begun meditating as anicca, emerges from saṅkhāra through anicca.

2-3. If vuṭṭhānagāminivipassanā arise to the meditator while meditating as dukkha and to another meditating as anattā, then it is having begun meditating as anicca, it emerges from saṅkhāradhamma through dukkha and through anattā.

Understand it in the same way for the remaining other emergence, having begun meditating on saṅkhāradhamma as dukkha and as anattā.

According to the decision of the commentary (Vism. XXI, 787), the meditator must meditate vipassanā on saṅkhāradhamma.
1. sometimes as anicca
2. sometimes as dukkha
3. sometimes as anattā, alternately.

The Ray of Anattā

Anicca and dukkha characteristics are apparent in the world, whether the enlightenment of a Buddha occurs or not. Anattā characteristic cannot be apparent without the enlightenment of a Buddha. Only when there is enlightenment of a Buddha that anattā characteristic is apparent. Even the wise righteous person such as sarabhaṅga who is a bodhisatta with great psychic powers can only able to teach the saṅkhāradhamma as anicca and dukkha. He was not able to proclaim the teaching on anattā. If such righteous person was able to proclaim the saṅkhāradhamma as anattā it would had been possible that his disciples/listeners could attain ariyamaggaphaḷañāṇa penetratively. It is true, indeed, that the proclamation of anantā characteristic is not the scope of any person or being except sabbaññusammāsambuddha, the omniscient Buddha. As such, anattalakhaṇa is not an apparent characteristic. Therefore the Buddha taught anattā characteristic by means of teaching it together with:
1. anicca characteristic
2. or dukkha characteristic
3. or both anicca and dukkha characteristics. (vibhaṅga aṭṭhakathā, 46-47)

Nānādhātuyo vinibbhujitvā ghanavinibbhoge kate anattalakhaṇaṃ yāthāva- sarasato upaṭṭhāti. (vibhaṅga aṭṭhakathā, 47)

If able to discern each rūpa-dhātu and nāma-dhātu, removing the rūpa compactness and nāma compactness, one by one until attaining ultimate reality then anattā characteristic = the 'sun', the ray of anattā will arise apparently to the insight of the meditator as it really is rūpa compactness and nāma compactness (ghana) can be removed only when one can discern and distinguish the paramattha dhātu one by one through (discerning their) characteristics-function-manifestation-proximate cause by vipassanā insight, analysing the rūpa compactness, nāma compactness, especially the rūpa kalāpa and nāma kalāpa by insights. Only if compactness is removed then one will attain ultimate reality insight. Only if ultimate reality insight is attained then the sun ray of anattā will arise appropriately and brightly. Only if one can meditate with vipassanā insight until the anicca, dukkha, and anattā characteristics become clear to the insight then one can attain ariyamagga.

Therefore if one teach and has the opinion that:
1. It is not necessary to discern to see rūpa-kalāpa and nāma-kalāpa;
2. Sāvaka (disciples) cannot be able to discern rūpa-kalāpa and nāma-kalāpa;
3. Sāvaka cannot analyze rūpa-kalāpa and nāma-kalāpa;
4. Sāvaka cannot discern the rūpa paramattha and nāma paramattha taught by Buddha;
5. Only sabbaññusammāsambuddha can realize rūpa and nāma taught by Buddha; It is only the scope of Buddha;
6. These nāma and rūpa can only be realized by arhanta —
then that teaching deviates from the path of the teaching and note that it is without any reference from the text. Only when one can analyze the rūpakalāpa and nāmakalāpa then he can attain ultimate reality insight. Nibbāna is the dhamma which can be attained only by going through the paramattha sacca realm (ultimate reality); take note that it is not the dhamma which can be attained by going through paññatti realm (concepts).

Kalāpasammasana and Anupadadhammavipassanā

Samūhagahaṇavasena pavattaṃ kalāpasammasanaṃ, phassādi ekekadhamma-gahaṇavasena pavattā anupadadhammavipassanā. (dhammasaṅgni-ṭīkā, 109)

There are two types of vipassanā: namely nayavipassanā called kalāpasammasana and anupadadhammavipassanā. The method of grouping the nāma-rūpa saṅkhāradhamma as a whole in group of 2 or 5 or 12 or 18 or 12 etc. By means of nāma-rūpa method, 5 khandha method, 12 āyatana method, 18 dhātu method, paṭiccasamuppāda method, etc. and meditating according to group is nayavipassanā called kalāpasammasana. [In this method, taking as object, rūpa existing in the 6 doors and 42 koṭṭhāsa as a whole, one meditates vipassanā on their three characteristics alternately. Similarly one must also meditate vipassanā on past, present, future, internal, external rūpa as a whole gradually on their three characteristics alternately. Also in nāma, one meditate vipassanā on the nāma existing on one mind moment as a whole or grouping them as vedanā group, saññā group, saṅkhāra group, viññāṇa group. The method is similar for past, future, present, internal, external etc.]

The method of meditating vipassanā after having analysed the rūpa one by one existing in a rūpa kalāpa such as pathavī, āpo, tejo, vāyo etc., and the method of meditating vipassanā after having taken as object one by one of the citta cetasika group such as phassa, vedanā, saññā, cetanā etc. existing in a mind moment are called anupadadhammavipassanā method.

Among these two methods, visuddimagga (Vism XX, 692) instructed that the meditator who is beginning the meditation should begin vith nayavipassanā called kalāpasammasana.

Paṭiccasamuppāda Factors

It is mentioned in visuddhimagga (Vism XX, 694), that paṭiccasamuppāda factors are included in the list of vipassanā insight objects (... dvādasa paṭiccasamuppādaṅgāni etc.)

Sappacayanāmarūpavasena tilakkhaṇaṃ āropetvā vipassanā paṭipāṭiyā 'anniccaṃ dukkhaṃ anattā'ti sammasanto vicarati. (mūlapaññāsa aṭṭhakathā. 1.281)

Above reference from mūlapaṇṇāsa commentary also instructed to meditate vipassanā on the three characteristics of nāma-rūpa together with the cause according to the stages of vipassanā insight.

In accordance with these instructions, after having discerned by insight the causal relationships between these paṭiccasamuppāda factors, one must meditate sometimes on the nature of anicca, sometimes on the nature of dukkha, sometimes on the nature of anatta of;
1. sometimes cause,
2. sometimes effect,
meditating as 'anicca', 'dukkha', 'anatta' alternately.

The meditator meditates vipassanā —
1. sometimes on internal
2. sometimes on external, and among these two;
3. sometimes rūpa
4. sometimes nāma
5. sometimes cause
6. sometimes effects
7. sometimes as anicca
8. sometimes as dukkha
9. sometimes as anatta
10. sometimes as asubha,
on the three characteristics alternately.

Asubhā bhavetabbā rāgassa pahānāya. (meghiya sutta, udāna pāli).

In meghiya sutta the Buddha had instructed to practise asubha meditation to remove rāga (lust); and similarly instructed in vijaya sutta (khuddaka. 1.308) to practise asubha meditation to eradicate rāga. Among the three characteristics, asubha is "surrounding" dukkhānupassanā. This vipassanā meditation should be practised on present five khandha.

Furthermore in teparivaṭṭadhammadesanā such as anattalakkhaṇa sutta, the Buddha had instructed to meditate vipassanā on past five khandha and future five khandha. In accordance to these instructions take note that one must meditate vipassanā on past khandha and future khandha similar to the method of meditating vipassanā on present khandha.

Therefore altogether,
11. sometimes meditate on past
12. sometimes meditate on future;
one must meditate vipassanā on these all.

These are important points which the meditator must know in advance relating the vipassanā meditation. Again one can meditate vipassanā on these nāma-rūpa by various method such as having formed five groups, the five khandha method; having formed 12 groups, the 12 āyatana method, having formed 18 groups, the 18 dhātu method; having formed 12 groups of factors, the paṭiccasamuppāda method etc. In classical treatise, the vipassanā meditation by nāma-rūpa method, having formed one group of nāma and one group of rūpa is mainly show.

Vipassanāñāṇa and Abhiññā

Concerning the discernment of past and future some venerable teachers have the opinion that only if one attains abhiññā, especially pubbenivāsānussati abhiññā then one can discern the past and future. There are 2 ways of discerning past and future which are by pubbenivāsānussati abhiññā ñāṇa and vipassanā ñāṇa. In the khandhavagga saṃyutta pāli, khajjanīya sutta and the commentary of that sutta taught:

'bhikkhus in the world some persons, namely the samaṇabrāhmaṇa can recollect many previous khandha process (former life) by insight if they want. In recollecting like that, these samaṇabrāhmaṇa can recollect the five upādānakhandha or one of the five upādānakhandha if they want.

Those samaṇabrāhmaṇa can also recollect by insight, if they want as:
1. "that rūpa had arouse in the past"
2. "that vedanā had arouse in the past"
3. "that saññā had arouse in the past"
4. "that saṅkhāra had arouse in the past"
5. "that viññāṇa had arouse in the past" (khandhavagga aṭṭhakathā. 79)
pubbenivāsa — Buddha taught using the word 'pubbenivāsa' recollecting the past khandha process. It was not meant the discernment of past khandha process by pubbenivāsānussati abhiññā power. Actually he meant to teach that the samaṇabrāhmaṇa recollect the past khadha process by vipassanā insight power. Therefore the Buddha himself taught that "they can reccolect the five upādānakhandhā by insight". The difference is that if the past khandha process is recollected by abhiññā then that pubbenivāsānussati abhiññā can know:
1. the five khandha where lokuttarā states are included (that means it can know the five khandha where lokuttara states had arisen in ariya persons such as previous Buddha)
2. the recollection of five upādānakhandhā (that means lokuttara states are not included)
3. the recollection of various concepts such as name concept.

However vipassanā insight cannot know the above 1, 3 and 4; it can only know number 2, which is five khandha, the object of vipassanā insight.

"rūpaṃyeva anussarati = can recollect only rūpa by insight" means that recollecting the past khandha process by vipassanā like that, is not recollecting any person, beings, puggala (=atta) but only ultimate reality. It recollects by insight rūpa khandha which had ceased in the past. Take note that it is similar for vedanā etc. (khandhavagga aṭṭhakathā. 79)

Therefore note that the meditator can discern and see the past five upādānakhandha by vipassanā insight. Here, note that nāmarūpaparicchedañāṇa and paccayapariggahañāṇa are included as vipassanā.

An Important Key Factor

Being able to recollect the five khandha by insight is essential for discerning past causes. If one has not yet been able to discern the 5 past khandha then he can never discern past cause which are part of past five khandha, similarly 'the arising of a past effect because of a respective further past causes' and 'the arising present effects because of the relevant past cause' can never be discerned. Similarly if one is not able to discern future 5 khandhas then 'the arising of future effect because of present cause (or relevant past cause)' and 'the arising of a further future effect because of relevant future cause' can never be discerned. This is because future effect and future cause are part of future 5 khandha.

An important key factor in searching for past cause and effect, and future cause and effect is being able to discern the nimitta that appear at the time of verge of death (maraṇāsanna), which could be either kamma or kammanimitta or gatinimitta. As that nimitta appears due to the force of kamma which is going to produce the effect, it is the important central key factor in searching for the kamma which will produce effect or the kamma which had produced effect or the kamma which is producing effect. It is the nimitta that arise in the appropriate 6 dvāra (sense doors) at the time of maraṇāsanna; it is especially the nimitta which appear in bhavaṅga mind clear element (manodvāra) at the time of being on the verge of death. Only when able to discern these 6 dvāra, especially manodvāra, then can one further discern the object nimitta which arise in the appropriate dvāra. Only if able to discern that nimitta then can one be able to discern kamma which produce the effect, and the avijjā, taṇhā, upādāna surrounding that kamma.

Only if able to discern especially bhavaṅga mind clear element (manodvāra) then can one be able to discern vīthi mind processes which arise in between bhavaṅga mind clear element (manodvāra). The causes (avijjā, taṇhā, upādāna, saṅkhāra, kamma) are the states that are included in these vīthi mind processes. They are part of vīthicitta.

In the search for past causes, it is very important to be able to discern the object of past maraṇāsannajavana. To be able to discern the object of that maraṇāsannajavana, it is very important to be able to discern the bhavaṅga mind clear element (manodvāra) existing at the time of maraṇāsanna in the past life. Only if able to discern like that one can discern —
1. the object of maraṇāsannajavana which appeared in that bhavaṅga mind clear element (manodvāra)
2. the vīthi mind processes including maraṇāsannajavana vīthi which arise in between these bhavaṅga mind clear element (manodvāra)
3. the fundamental cause, kamma which produce that object to appear
4. the avijjā, taṇhā, upādāna which can cause that kamma.

Similarly if there is still future life for the meditator he must be able to discern the object of maraṇāsannajavana which appear at the time of near death (maraṇāsanna) in the present life. To be able to discern that one must firstly be able to discern the bhavaṅga mind clear element (manodvāra) that arise at the time of near death. Only if able to discern like that, the object of maraṇāsannajavana which appear in that manodvāra; the kamma which is going to produce the effect, causing that object to appear; and the avijjā, taṇhā, upādāna which are the supporting causes of that kamma can be discerned.

Similarly for the meditator who still has to go round the future saṃsāra, in searching for the causal relationships (paṭiccasamuppāda) between the successive future lives he must also be able to discern the object (the nimitta) of the maraṇāsannajavana which will appear in manodvāra existing at the time near the future cuti (death). As that nimitta appear because of the kamma which will produce a new future life, the kamma which cause that nimitta to appear is a fundamental cause for the future khandha such as the second future etc. That nimitta can arise also because of past kamma called aparāpariya; or it can arise because of kamma accumulated in the present life; or it can arise because of the future life kamma, including kamma accumulated before the future death. If one search for the kamma based on that nimitta then one cen easily find it. One can also find the avijjā, taṇhā, upādāna which support the kamma. To be able to discern like that, it is necessary to be able to discern the six dvāra, especially bhavaṅga mind clear element (manodvāra) of the maraṇāsanna period.

Therefore to be able to discern the past and future khandha is a very important requirement not only for vipassanā meditation on past and future khandha but also for the discernment of causal relationships paṭiccasamuppāda and for vipassanā meditation on the paṭiccasamuppāda factors. To see these things a meditator will need to develop one of the two levels of concentration, either access concentration (upacāra-samādhi) or absorption concentration (appanā-samādhi).

To see these things a meditator will need to develop one of the two levels of concentration, either access concentration (upacāra-samādhi) or absorption concentration (appanā-samādhi)?

The Purification of Mind

Do all the eight factors of the Noble Eightfold Path need to be developed?

A meditator who wishes to attain Nibbāna should recall that in the Dhammacakka Sutta, the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta, and in other suttas, the path of practice that leads to the cessation of suffering is always taught to consist of eight factors, from right view (sammā-diṭṭhi) up to right concentration (sammā-samādhi).

Only when all eight factors are present can a meditator reach Nibbāna, which is the cessation of suffering.

Of these eight factors, right concentration is defined as the first, second, third, and fourth jhānas by the Buddha in various suttas. This method of teaching is called either ukkaṭṭha-niddesa method or majjhedīpaka method. The ukkaṭṭha-niddesa method shows the best concentration upon which to base one’s Vipassanà practice. The majjhedīpaka method points to the middle four of all nine types of concentration. It points to the finematerial-plane concentration (rūpāvacara-samādhi). This must be taken together with the highest concentration of the sensual plane (kāmāvacara), which is access concentration, and with the immaterial-plane concentration (arūpāvacara-samādhi) which occur on either side of the fine-material-plane concentration. Therefore, when the Buddha gives the four jhānas as an example of right concentration it should be understood that all nine types of concentration are meant. Thus, it can be seen that a meditator must possess right concentration to practise Vipassanā and to attain Nibbāna.

To develop the seven stages of purification a meditator must first develop the purification of virtue (sīla-visuddhi), followed by the purification of mind (citta-visuddhi). Having achieved the purification of mind he can develop the purification of view (diṭṭhi-visuddhi).

In the Abhidhammattha-Saṅgaha it is stated:

‘Lakkhaṇa-rasa-paccupaṭṭhāna-padaṭṭhāna-vasena nāma-rūpa-pariggaho diṭṭhivisuddhi nāma.’ (chapter 9, visuddhibhedo)

This can be translated as:

‘The discerning of mentality and materiality according to characteristic, function, manifestation, and proximate cause is called the purification of view.’

A meditator who wishes to complete the development of purification of view must first endeavour to achieve the purification of mind. The Visuddhimagga defines the purification of mind saying: ‘Cittavisuddhi nāma saupacārā aṭṭha samāpattiyo.’ Which means: ‘The purification of mind is the eight attainments together with access concentration.’ (Vsm. XVIII, 1)

So, the four fine-material and four immaterial jhānas plus access concentration constitute the purification of mind. Therefore one must endeavour to achieve either access concentration or one of the jhānas, or all of them together to attain the purification of mind.

The Samādhi Sutta of Saṃyutta Nikāya (Khandavagga Saṃyutta) states:

‘Bhikkhus, develop concentration. Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is concentrated knows things as they really are. And what does he know as they really are? The arising of materiality and its causes, and its passing-away and its causes. The arising and causes of origination and the passing-away and causes of dissolution of feelings (vedanā),… perception (saññā),… formations (saṅkhāra),… consciousness (viññāṇa).’

In this sutta the Buddha has shown that concentration must be developed to be able to know the following as they really are:

1. Materiality, feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness, which are ultimate dhammas.
2. The causes of origination of the five aggregates, which are ignorance (avijjā), craving (taṇhā), clinging (upādāna), volitional formations (saṅkhāra), kamma, etc.
3. The causes of the dissolution of the five aggregates, which are the cessation of ignorance, craving, clinging, volitional formations, kamma, etc.
4. The arising and passing-away of the five aggregates and their causes.

Any person who wishes to attain Nibbāna should pay attention to this Teaching of the Buddha because it demonstrates the necessity of developing concentration. If, however, meditators were to meditate without developing concentration, then because they did not possess concentration, the following would be beyond their ability:

1. To know correctly how in the past, present, and future, resultant dhammas are produced because of causal dhammas, and how the cessation of these causal dhammas causes the cessation of the resultant dhammas.
2. To see rūpa kalāpas, or if they can see them, to analyse them, remove compactness, and discern ultimate dhammas.
3. To know as they really are the arising and passing-away of the five aggregates, and their causes, internally and externally, as well as in the past, present, and future.

Therefore, for those who as yet do not know these things, it is advisable to respectfully follow the Buddha’s advice and develop concentration. In this way one will, with the three understandings (pariññā), be able to discern the five aggregates completely, and attain Nibbāna. The Buddha taught this in order that we may be able to reach the end of suffering.

Momentary Concentration of the Purification of Mind

Let us explain a little about the momentary concentration (khaṇika-samādhi) of a bare-insight-vehicle individual (suddha-vipassanā-yānika) at the time of attaining the purification of mind, and, then the momentary concentration subsequently present at the time of actual Vipassanā practice.

A tranquillity-vehicle individual (samatha-yānika) is one who has developed one of the jhānas and, therefore, completed the purification of mind. When he wishes to complete the purification of view, he should enter into one of the jhānas, although not the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. Having emerged from that jhāna he should discern the jhāna factors, beginning with applied thought (vitakka), etc., and all the mental-concomitants (cetasika) associated with that jhāna consciousness. Each should be discerned according to characteristic, function, manifestation, and proximate cause. After that, he should take them all together as mentality because they all have the characteristic of bending towards the object.

Then he should discern the heart-base materiality where those types of mentality reside, the four elements on which that heart-base materiality depends, and the other types of derived materiality present there. They should also be discerned according to characteristic, function, manifestation, and proximate cause (according to Vsm. XVIII, 3).

If, however, that tranquillity-vehicle individual wishes to begin by discerning material dhammas, without having discerned the mental dhammas, he should proceed in the exact same way as a bare-insight-vehicle individual. A bare-insight-vehicle individual develops the purification of view as follows:

‘A bare-insight-vehicle individual, or a tranquillity-vehicle individual who wishes to begin insight practice by discerning materiality instead of mentality, should discern the four elements in brief, or in detail, in one of the various ways given in chapter XI on the definition of the four elements.’ (Vsm. XVIII, 4)

According to these instructions from the Visuddhimagga, a person who wishes to proceed directly to the practice of Vipassanā without any jhānas as a foundation, or a person who has attained one or all of the eight jhānas, but wishes to begin Vipassanā by discerning materiality first, must begin by discerning the four elements in brief, in detail, or both in brief and in detail.

Vipassanā is made up of two sections: contemplation of materiality and contemplation of mentality. These two are also called discernment of materiality (rūpa-pariggaha) and discernment of mentality (arūpa-pariggaha).

The Majjhima commentary and the Abhidhamma commentary say:

‘Of these two, discernment of materiality refers to the defining of the four elements in the brief way or the detailed way.’ (Abhi. com. 2. p. 252; M. com. 1. p. 280)

These instructions found in the commentaries, on how to discern materiality in Vipassanā, show that the Buddha taught that a bare-insight-vehicle individual, or a tranquillity-vehicle individual who wishes to begin by discerning materiality, must begin by discerning the four elements in brief or in detail. If a meditator practises according to the Teaching of the Buddha, it will produce the most beneficial result.

The Visuddhimagga clearly states that four-elements meditation, which is one of the forty subjects of Samatha meditation, is included in the group of meditation subjects which can lead to access concentration. This means that it is a meditation subject which must be developed up to access concentration.

How to develop the four-elements meditation has been described in brief and in detail. The Buddha taught the brief method in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta saying:

‘Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects about this very body, however it be positioned or placed, as consisting of just elements thus: ‘There exists in this body just the earth-element, water-element, fire-element, and air-element.’ (D. ii, 294; M. 1, 57)

The Visuddhimagga further says that a meditator should discern the four elements, in the bones, sinews, flesh, and skin, separating each out with the hand of wisdom, and do this again and again one hundred, one thousand, and even one hundred thousand times.

(Example to explain the point. When a meditator has reached the fourth jhāna by using mindfulness-of-breathing, and has developed the five masteries, then when the light produced by that concentration is bright, brilliant and radiant, he can, if he wishes, move on to develop Vipassanā meditation. The meditator can on the other hand continue to develop Samatha meditation. However, the mind of a meditator has reached the fourth jhāna is so lighted and playable that during one day is able to develop the four-elements meditation.)

The Visuddhimagga further states:

‘As he makes effort in this way, it is not long before concentration arises in him, which is reinforced by understanding that illuminates the classification of the elements, and which is only access (upacāra) and does not reach absorption because it has states with individual essences (sabhāva-dhamma) as its object.’ (Vsm. XI, 42)

Attention should be paid to the fact that the Visudhimagga clearly states that meditation on the four elements can lead to access concentration.

The sub-commentary to Visuddhimagga states:

‘Without access and absorption concentration in one whose vehicle is tranquillity, or without momentary concentration in one whose vehicle is bare-insight, and without the gateways to liberation (knowledge of impermanence, suffering, and non-self), the supramundane can in either case never be reached.’ (Vsm. subcom. l. p. 15)

Here the sub-commentary uses the term ‘momentary concentration’ to describe the concentration developed by the bare-insight-vehicle individual, and the Visuddhimagga uses the term ‘access concentration’. This distinction in usage should be understood.

Concerning this usage the sub-commentary explains:

‘When the commentary uses ‘access concentration’ to define the highest concentration attainable in four-elements meditation, it must be understood that it is used in the sense of comparison or similarity. Only the concentration close to jhāna can be called ‘access’ and in this four-elements meditation there is no jhāna to be attained because it has states with individual essences as its object. However, since the level of concentration attained in four-elements meditation is similar to access concentration, the commentators call it ‘access concentration’. (Vsm. Sub-com. 1. 436)

Thus it can be seen that the author of the sub-commentary believed that only the highest sensual-plane concentration which has a tranquillity object and is prior to or close to jhāna, can truly be called ‘access concentration’. He believed the highest sensual-plane concentration attained by doing four-elements meditation to be called ‘access concentration’ by the commentators because it is similar. However, he thought it should be called ‘momentary concentration’ because in this meditation subject there is no jhāna to which one can strictly say there is an ‘access’.

Insight and Momentary Concentration

The Visuddhimagga says that a meditator should try to develop the insight-knowledges from the Knowledge of Comprehension (sammasana-ñāṇa) upwards only after he has completed five kinds of discernment. They are:

1. Discernment of materiality (rūpa-pariggaha).
2. Discernment of mentality (arūpa-pariggaha).
3. Discernment of mentality and materiality (nāmarūpa-pariggaha).
4. Discernment of dhammas which are causes and dhammas which are results of the present mentality and materiality (paccaya-pariggaha).
5. Discernment of dhammas which are causes and dhammas which are results of the past and future mentality and materiality (addhāna-pariggaha).

The objects of insight meditation are mentality, materiality, dhammas that are causes, and dhammas that are effects. These are also called formations or conditioned phenomena (saṅkhāra-dhamma).

The understanding (paññā) that sees all these conditioned phenomena as impermanent, suffering, and non-self is called insight (vipassanā). Therefore, a meditator who wishes to develop Vipassanā beginning from the Purification by Knowledge and Vision of What Is and What Is Not Path (maggāmagga-ñāṇa dassana-visuddhi) onwards, must first have completed the Purification of View and the Purification by Overcoming Doubt (kaṅkhāvitaraṇa-visuddhi). This is because it is the mentality, materiality, and causes and effects discerned in those purifications (visuddhi) where the three characteristics of impermanence, suffering, and non-self must be perceived and seen with insight.

In the practice of insight the meditator must alternately perceive the three characteristics in the five internal aggregates and in the five external aggregates, and in materiality and mentality (see Vsm. XXI, 86). The Visuddhimagga says one should also perceive the three characteristics in the dhammas in the past and future at the time of practising insight on the factors of dependent-origination during the Knowledge of Comprehension (sammasana-ñāṇa) and the Knowledge of Arising and PassingAway (udayabbaya-ñāṇa) (see Vsm. XX, 6–9 ). The concentration that occurs while practising insight is called momentary concentration, because it does not remain on a single object continuously as it does in Samatha.

To be able to practise insight systematically, as described above, the practice must be based upon access or absorption concentration. Here access concentration refers to that produced by four-elements meditation or Samatha meditation. Only the concentration that occurs when doing insight in the above way can be called insight momentary-concentration (vipassanā-khaṇika-samādhi).

Please note that if the meditator is as yet unable to see rūpa kalāpas or individual types of mentality, to analyse them, to discern the causes and results in the past, present, and future, to perceive the three characteristics of all these dhammas, then his concentration cannot be called insight momentary-concentration.

To summarize: When developing concentration, the bare-insight-vehicle individual’s highest concentration reached in four-elements meditation is called access concentration by comparison to the access concentration preceding jhāna. This highest concentration is also called momentary concentration by the sub-commentary. When a bare-insight-vehicle individual is practising Vipassanā, he bases his insight upon access concentration, which for him is the purification of mind (cittavisuddhi). When he proceeds to see with insight conditioned phenomena, he has at that time concentration called insight momentary-concentration. When the tranquillity vehicle individual, who develops access or absorption concentration as his purification of mind, arises from that concentration, and sees with insight conditioned phenomena, he has at that time concentration likewise called insight momentary-concentration.

Eleven categories of the five aggregates

The Buddha also says one needs to contemplate the body internally (ajjhattaṃ) and externally (bahiddhā). These is two of the eleven categories of the five aggregates. You will remember our quoting The Buddha's saying the destruction of suffering is impossible unless one has full knowledge of the five aggregates past, future, and present, internal and external, gross and subtle, inferior and superior, far and near. It is therefore not difficult to understand that when The Buddha says one needs to contemplate the body, internally and externally, He means one needs to contemplate the body past, future, and present, internal and external, gross and subtle, inferior and superior, far and near.

In M.II.iii.10 'Vekhanasa∙Suttaṃ' ('The Vekhanasa Sutta'), The Buddha explains: 'If, Kaccāna, any ascetics and brahmins, without knowing the past (a∙jānantā pubbantaṃ), without seeing the future (a∙passantā aparantaṃ), claim "Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming into any state of being", such with this, in accordance with the Dhamma, are confuted (tesaṃ soyeva saha∙Dhammiko niggaho hoti).'

Hence, DhSA.I.iii.350 'Lokuttara∙Kusalaṃ Pakiṇṇaka∙Kathā' ('Discussion of the Supramundane Sundry') and VsM.xxi.784-786 'Saṅkhār∙Upekkhā∙Ñāṇaṃ' ('The Formations-Equanimity Knowledge') explain the one who from the beginning observes only the internal five aggregates (ādit∙ova ajjhattaṃ pañcasu khandhesu abhinivisati), who so observing them sees them as impermanent, suffering, and non-self, etc.

But since by purely seeing just the internal (suddha∙ajjhatta∙dassanamatten∙eva), there is no Path emergence (Magga∙vuṭṭhānaṃ), the external too should be seen (bahiddhā∙pi daṭṭhabbameva): therefore also another's aggregates (parassa khandhe∙pi) as well as unclung to formations (anupādinna∙saṅkhāre∙pi) (inanimate objects) one sees as, 'Impermanent, suffering, non-self'.

At times one the internal comprehends (kālena ajjhattaṃ sammasati), at times the external (kālena bahiddhāti). Comprehending in this way, when comprehending the internal, one's insight links up with the Path (vipassanā Maggena saddhiṃ ghaṭiyati). Likewise when contemplating the external.

In the same way, one observes materiality (rūpe abhinivisati), essential materiality (bhūta∙rūpañ∙ca) and derived materiality (upāda∙rūpañ∙ca) having defined (paricchinditvā), observing one sees them as impermanent, etc., but since by purely seeing just materiality there is no Path emergence, the immaterial too should be seen (arūpam∙pi daṭṭhabbameva): therefore, having defined as 'This is the immaterial' (idaṃ arūpanti) the feeling (vedanaṃ), perception (saññaṃ), formations (saṅkhāre), and consciousness (viññāṇañca) that have arisen (uppannaṃ) making that materiality the object (taṃ rūpaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā), as impermanent, etc., one sees it.

At times one the material comprehends, at times the immaterial, and again the Path may emerge while one is comprehending either one.

Having thus comprehended 'Any whatsoever arising phenomenon, it is every one a ceasing phenomenon' (yaṃ∙kiñci samudaya∙dhammaṃ sabbaṃ taṃ nirodha∙dhamman’ti), in the same way, at the time of emergence, it is said one emerges from the five aggregates in one blow [simultaneously] (eka∙ppahārena pañcahi khandhehi vuṭṭhāti).

VsM.ibid.787 likewise discusses how one needs to comprehend formations not only as impermanent, but also as suffering and non-self, although the Path may emerge at the time of comprehending either one.

Idhekacco āditova ajjhattaṁ pañcasu khandhesu abhinivisati (Vism, XXl, 85) - a meditator begins the Vipassanā meditation by paying attention on internal 5 Khandhā. Abhinivisitvā te aniccāto passati - paying attention like this he meditates on their nature of Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta; and then, Yasmā pana na suddha ajjhatta dassana matteneva magga vutthānaṁ hoti, bahiddhāpi datthabbameva (Vism, XXI, 85) - Magga Ñāṇa can never be attained by meditating only on internal 5 Khandhā. The Vutthanagāminī Vipassanā can never arise; therefore one must also meditate on the nature of Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta of external 5 Khandhā. Tasmā parassa khandhepi anupadinna saṅkhārepi ̒Aniccaṁ dukkhaṁ anattā̓ ti passati (Vism, XXI, 85) - therefore meditate on the nature of Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta of others 5 Khandhā and of non-living things namely Anupadinna Saṅkhāra.

In S.V.II.iii.10 'Udāyi·Suttaṃ' ('The Udāyi Sutta'), Ven. Udāyi describes his practice to The Buddha: 'The Bhagavā taught me this Dhamma: "Such is materiality, such materiality's origination, such materiality's extinction. Such is feeling, [etc.]." Then I, Venerable Sir, gone to an empty place, going over the rise&fall (ukkujj·āvakujjaṃ samparivattento) of these five clinging-aggregates [as rise&perish (udaya·bbaya·vasena)], directly knew according to reality (yathā·bhūtaṃ abbh·aññāsiṃ): "This is suffering....suffering's origin....suffering's cessation....the practice leading to suffering's cessation." The Dhamma by me, Venerable Sir, has been recognized (abhisamito), and the Path by me has been obtained (paṭiladdho).' He then explains that if he develops that path, he will attain Arahantship. [The Dhamma he recognized was insight Dhamma (vipassanā·Dhamma), and the path the insight path (vipassanā·magga).]

Then in D.II.1 'Mahā·Padāna·Suttaṃ' ('The Great Lineage Sutta'), The Buddha gives an account of the previous six Buddhas, explaining in some detail Buddha Vipassī's life, ninety-one aeons ago. And He includes an explanation of how The Buddha Vipassī discovered dependent origination in regular/negative order, and His thinking: 'Indeed, I have reached the path to enlightenment (adhigato kho myāyaṃ maggo sambodhāya yad·idaṃ) [the insight path (vipassanā·maggo)(as in the 'Udāyi' sutta just mentioned)].' And then The Buddha Vipassī abode contemplating the rise&perish of the five aggregates (pañcasu upādāna·kkhandhesu udaya·bbay·ānupassī): 'Such is materiality, [etc.]', and not long after attained Arahantship and Buddhahood.

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Re: There is no such thing as "vipassana meditation"?

Post by Pseudobabble » Sun Mar 03, 2019 1:13 pm

Lankamed wrote:
Sat Mar 02, 2019 2:00 am
Last year I visited Bhikku Katukurunde Nanananda (just 14 days before his death :candle: )
Wow. You actually met a legend, that's awesome.
"Does Master Gotama have any position at all?"

"A 'position,' Vaccha, is something that a Tathagata has done away with. What a Tathagata sees is this: 'Such is form, such its origination, such its disappearance; such is feeling, such its origination, such its disappearance; such is perception...such are fabrications...such is consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.'" - Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta


'Dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return.' - Genesis 3:19

'Some fart freely, some try to hide and silence it. Which one is correct?' - Saegnapha

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