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From Ven. Bodhi's note to "Middle Length Discourses":MN 64 wrote:Venerable sir, I remember identity view as a lower fetter taught by the Blessed One. I remember doubt as a lower fetter taught by the Blessed One. I remember adherence to rules and observances as a lower fetter taught by the Blessed One. I remember sensual desire as a lower fetter taught by the Blessed One. I remember ill will as a lower fetter taught by the Blessed One. It is in this way, venerable sir, that I remember the five lower fetters as taught by the Blessed One.”
“Mālunkyāputta, to whom do you remember my having taught these five lower fetters in that way? Would not the wanderers of other sects confute you with the simile of the infant?"
Why did the Buddha criticise Malunkyaputta on the five fetters? because the venerable held the view that a person is fettered by the defilements only at times when they assail him, while at other times he is not fettered by them. The Buddha proved that's not the case for a young infant already possess the underlying tendency to the fetters. So the fetters, even when they do not come to active manifestation, continue to exist as tendency level so long as they have not been eradicated by the supramundane path; On the anusayas/underlying tendencies, see note