Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

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cooran
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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by cooran » Sun Mar 22, 2009 7:15 am

Hello all,

Paali Primer
Exercise 2
Translate into English
1. Tathaagato dhamma.m bhaasati.
Buddha / truth / speaks
The Buddha speaks the truth.

2. Braahma.naa odana.m bhu~njanti.
brahmins / rice / eat
Brahmins eat rice.

3. Manusso suriya.m passati.
man / sun / sees
The man sees the sun.

4. Kumaaraa sigaale paharanti.
boys / jackals / hit
Boys hit the jackals.

5. Yaacakaa bhatta.m yaacanti.
beggars / rice / beg
- Beggars beg [for] rice.
- Beggars ask for rice.

6. Kassakaa aavaa.te kha.nanti.
farmers / pits / dig
Farmers dig pits.

7. Mitto gaama.m aagacchati.
friend / [to] village / comes
The friend comes to the village.

8. Bhuupaalo manusse rakkhati.
king / people / protects
The king protects the people.

9. Puttaa pabbata.m gacchanti.
sons / [to] mountain / go
Sons go to the mountain.

10. Kumaaro Buddha.m vandati.
boy / Buddha / worships
- The boy worships the Buddha.
- The boy pays respect to the Buddha.

11. Vaa.nijaa patte aaharanti.
merchants / bowls / bring
Merchants bring bowls.

12. Puriso vihaara.m gacchati.
man / [to] monastery / goes
The man goes to the monastery.

13. Kukkuraa pabbata.m dhaavanti.
dogs / [to] mountain / run
Dogs run to the mountain.

14. Sigaalaa gaama.m aagacchanti.
jackals / [to] village / come
Jackals come to the village.

15. Braahma.naa sahaayake aaharanti.
brahmins / friends / bring
Brahmins bring friends.

16. Bhuupaalaa Sugata.m vandanti.
kings / Buddha / worship
Kings worship the Buddha.

17. Yaacakaa sayanti.
beggars / sleep
Beggars sleep.

18. Mittaa sunakhe haranti.
friends / dogs / take away
Friends take the dogs away.

19. Putto canda.m passati.
son / moon / sees
The son sees the moon.

20. Kassako gaama.m dhaavati.
farmer / [to] village / runs
The farmer runs to the village.

21. Vaa.nijaa rukkhe chindanti.
merchants / trees / cut
Merchants cut trees.

22. Naro sigaala.m vijjhati.
man / jackal / shoots
The man shoots the jackal.

23. Kumaaro odana.m bhu~njati.
boy / rice / eats
The boy eats rice.

24. Yaacako so.na.m paharati.
beggar / dog / hits
The beggar hits the dog.

25. Sahaayakaa pabbate aaruhanti.
friends / mountains / climb
Friends climb mountains.

Translate into Paali
1. Men go to the monastery.
naraa / gacchanti / vihaara.m
Naraa vihaara.m gacchanti.

2. Farmers climb mountains.
kassakaa / aaruhanti / pabbate
Kassakaa pabbate aaruhanti.

3. The brahmin eats rice.
braahma.no / bhu~njati / odana.m
Braahma.no odana.m bhu~njati.

4. The Buddha sees the boys.
Buddho / kumaare / passati
Buddho kumaare passati.

5. Uncles take away bowls.
maatulaa / haranti / patte
Maatulaa patte haranti.

6. The son protects the dog.
putto / rakkhati / kukkura.m
Putto kukkura.m rakkhati.

7. The king worships the Buddha.
bhuupaalo / vandati / Buddha.m
Bhuupaalo Buddha.m vandati.

8. The merchant brings a boy.
vaa.nijo / aaharati / kumaara.m
Vaa.nijo kumaara.m aaharati.

9. Friends salute the brahmin.
mittaa / vandanti / braahma.na.m
Mittaa braahma.na.m vandanti.

10. Beggars beg rice.
yaacakaa / yaacanti / odana.m
Yaacakaa odana.m yaacanti.

11. Merchants shoot jackals.
vaa.nijaa / vijjhanti / sigaale
Vaa.nijaa sigaale vijjhanti.

12. Boys climb the mountain.
kumaaraa / aaruhanti / pabbata.m
Kumaaraa pabbata.m aaruhanti.

13. The farmer runs to the village.
kassako / dhaavati / gaama.m
Kassako gaama.m dhaavati.

14. The merchant cooks rice.
vaa.nijo / pacati / bhatta.m
Vaa.nijo bhatta.m pacati.

15. Sons worship the uncle.
puttaa / vandanti / maatula.m
Puttaa maatula.m vandanti.

16. Kings protect men.
bhuupaalaa / rakkhanti / nare
Bhuupaalaa nare rakkhanti.

17. The Buddha comes to the monastery.
Buddho / aagacchati / vihaara.m
Buddho vihaara.m aagacchati.

18. The men descend.
naraa / oruhanti
Naraa oruhanti.

19. Farmers dig pits.
kassakaa / kha.nanti / aavaa.te
Kassakaa aavaa.te kha.nanti.

20. The merchant runs.
vaa.nijo / dhaavati
Vaa.nijo dhaavati.

21. The dog sees the moon.
kukkuro / passati / canda.m
Kukkuro canda.m passati.

22. Boys climb trees.
kumaaraa / aaruhanti / rukkhe
Kumaaraa rukkhe aaruhanti.

23. The brahmin brings the bowl.
braahma.no / aaharati / patta.m
Braahma.no patta.m aaharati.

24. The beggar sleeps.
yaacako / sayati
Yaacako sayati.

25. The king sees the Buddha.
bhuupaalo / passati / Buddha.m
Bhuupaalo Buddha.m passati.

metta,
cooran
---The trouble is that you think you have time---
---Worry is the Interest, paid in advance, on a debt you may never owe---
---It's not what happens to you in life that is important ~ it's what you do with it ---

pt1
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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by pt1 » Sat Mar 28, 2009 7:31 am

Hi Chris and all,

A few questions regarding lesson 2:
1. Tathaagato dhamma.m bhaasati.
The Buddha speaks the truth.
Can this also be translated as: "The Buddha speaks about the truth", or would that be a different declension case?
13. Kukkuraa pabbata.m dhaavanti.
Dogs run to the mountain.
So, in English, accusative is always with "to" + place? I was inclined to translate this as "Dogs run on the mountain", but I'm guessing that would also be a different declension case?

Why is "the" used translating 18 (the dogs), but not in 21 (trees)? Is "the" here optional because these are simple examples without context, or is there some specific necessity for "the" that I'm missing?
18. Mittaa sunakhe haranti.
Friends take the dogs away.

21. Vaa.nijaa rukkhe chindanti.
Merchants cut trees.
Thanks

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tiltbillings
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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by tiltbillings » Sat Mar 28, 2009 5:16 pm

I am going to be a very poor substitute for Ven D. So, until his internet connxion gets fixed, I'll offer:
pt1 wrote:Hi Chris and all,

A few questions regarding lesson 2:
1. Tathaagato dhamma.m bhaasati.
The Buddha speaks the truth.
Can this also be translated as: "The Buddha speaks about the truth", or would that be a different declension case?
These are simple - in English - noun, verb, and direct object sentences. The best advice is keep it simple. Speaking the truth is different from speaking about the truth. That sentence would read a bit differently, probably needing a prepesitional adverb. Follow the examples given in each lesson.

13. Kukkuraa pabbata.m dhaavanti.
Dogs run to the mountain.
So, in English, accusative is always with "to" + place? I was inclined to translate this as "Dogs run on the mountain", but I'm guessing that would also be a different declension case?
"On the mountain" would be a locative case. The "to" is from the verb.
Why is "the" used translating 18 (the dogs), but not in 21 (trees)? Is "the" here optional because these are simple examples without context, or is there some specific necessity for "the" that I'm missing?
18. Mittaa sunakhe haranti.
Friends take the dogs away.

21. Vaa.nijaa rukkhe chindanti.
Merchants cut trees.
Thanks
If you want you can put a "the" in from of trees.

And, of course, I stand to be corrected on any of this. It has been so long since I have really worked with Pali.
>> Do you see a man wise [enlightened/ariya] in his own eyes? There is more hope for a fool than for him.<< -- Proverbs 26:12

This being is bound to samsara, kamma is his means for going beyond. -- SN I, 38.

“Of course it is happening inside your head, Harry, but why on earth should that mean that it is not real?” HPatDH p.723

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cooran
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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by cooran » Sat Mar 28, 2009 9:44 pm

Hello Tilt, all,

Thanks for helping out until Ajahn is in communication again. :group:

:anjali:

metta
Chris
---The trouble is that you think you have time---
---Worry is the Interest, paid in advance, on a debt you may never owe---
---It's not what happens to you in life that is important ~ it's what you do with it ---

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cooran
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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by cooran » Sat Mar 28, 2009 9:45 pm

Hello all,

Pali Primer Exercise 3

Translate into English:

1. Buddho sāvakehi saddhiṃ vihāraṃ gacchati.
Buddha / [with] disciples / with / [to] monastery / goes
The Buddha goes to the monastery with [his] disciples.

2. Puriso puttena saha dīpaṃ dhāvati.
man / [with] son / with / [to] island / runs
The man runs to the island with [his] son.

3. Kassako sarena sigālaṃ vijjhati.
farmer / [with] arrow / jackal / shoots
The farmer shoots the jackal with (an) arrow.

4. Brāhmaṇā mātulena saha pabbataṃ āruhanti.
brahmins / [with] uncle / with / mountain / climb
Brahmins climb the mountain with uncle.

5. Puttā pādehi kukkure paharanti.
sons / [with] feet / dogs / hit
- Sons hit the dogs with feet.
- Sons kick the dogs.

6. Mātulo puttehi saddhiṃ rathena gāmaṃ āgacchati.
uncle / [with] sons / with / by chariot / [to] village / comes
The uncle comes to the village with [his] sons by a chariot.

7. Kumārā hatthehi patte āharanti.
boys / [by the means of] hands / bowls / bring
Boys bring the bowls by hands.

8. Coro maggena assaṃ harati.
thief / [by the means of] road / horse / takes away
The thief takes away the horse along the road.

9. Kassako āvāṭaṃ oruhati.
farmer / [to] pit / descends
- The farmer descends to the pit.
- The farmer gets down to the pit.

10. Bhūpālā paṇḍitehi saha samaṇe passanti.
kings / [with] wise men / with / monks / see
Kings, [together] with the wise men, see the monks.

11. Paṇḍito bhūpālena saha Tathāgataṃ vandati.
wise man / [with] king / with / Buddha / worships
The wise man, [together] with the king, worships the Buddha.

12. Puttā sahāyena saddhiṃ odanaṃ bhuñjanti.
sons / [with] friend / with / rice / eat
Sons eat rice with [a] friend.

13. Vāṇijo pāsāṇena migaṃ paharati.
merchant / [with] stone / deer / hits
The merchant hits [a] deer with [a] stone.

14. Sunakhā pādehi āvāṭe khaṇanti.
dogs / [with] feet / pits / dig
Dogs dig pits with [their] feet.

15. Brāhmaṇo puttena saha suriyaṃ vandati.
brahmin / [with] son / with / sun / worships
The brahmin, [together] with [his] son, worships the sun.

16. Kassako soṇehi saddhiṃ rukkhe rakkhati.
farmer / [with] dogs / with / trees / protects
The farmer protects trees with dogs.

17. Sugato sāvakehi saha vihāraṃ āgacchati.
Buddha / [with] disciples / with / [to] monastery / comes
Buddha comes to the monastery with [his] disciples.

18. Yācako pattena bhattaṃ āharati.
beggar / [by the means of] bowl / rice / brings
The beggar brings rice in [a] bowl.

19. Paṇḍitā saggaṃ gacchanti.
wise men / heaven / go
Wise men go to heaven.

20. Kumārā assehi saddhiṃ gāmaṃ dhāvanti.
boys / [with] horses / with / [to] village / run
Boys run to the village with horses.

21. Coro khaggena naraṃ paharati.
thief / [by the means of] sword / man / hits
The thief hits the man with [a] sword.

22. Vāṇijo sakaṭena dīpe āharati.
merchant / [by the means of] cart / lamps / brings
The merchant brings lamps by [a] cart.

23. Assā maggena dhāvanti.
horses / [by the means of] path / run
- Horses run through the path/road.
- Horses run along the path/road.

24. Sigālā migehi saddhiṃ pabbataṃ dhāvanti.
jackals / [with] deer / with / [to] mountain / run
Jackals run to the mountain with deer.

25. Bhūpālo paṇḍitena saha manusse rakkhati.
king / [with] wise man / with / people / protects
The king, [together] with [a] wise man, protects the people.

Translate into Pali:

1. The recluse sees the Buddha with his friend.
samaṇo / passati / Buddhaṃ / mittena saha
Samaṇo mittena saha Buddhaṃ passati.

2. Disciples go to the monastery with the Buddha.
sāvakā / gacchanti / viharaṃ / Buddhena saha
Sāvakā Buddhena saha viharaṃ gacchanti.

3. The horse runs to the mountain with the dogs.
asso / dhāvati / pabbataṃ / kukkurehi saddhiṃ
Asso kukkurehi saddhiṃ pabbataṃ dhāvati.

4. The boy hits the lamp with a stone.
kumāro / paharati / dīpaṃ / pāsāṇena
Kumāro pāsāṇena dīpaṃ paharati.

5. Merchants shoot deer with arrows.
vāṇijā / vijjhanti / mige / sarehi
Vāṇijā sarehi mige vijjhanti.

6. Farmers dig pits with their hands.
kassakā / khaṇanti / āvāṭe / hatthehi
Kassakā hatthehi āvāṭe khaṇanti.

7. Boys go to the monastery by chariot with their uncle.
kumārā / gacchanti / vihāraṃ / rathena / mātulena saha
Kumārā mātulena saha rathena vihāraṃ gacchanti.

8. The brahmin cooks rice with his friend.
brāhmaṇo / pacati / bhattaṃ / mittena saha
Brāhmaṇo mittena saha bhattaṃ pacati.

9. The king protects the island with wise men.
bhūpālo / rakkhati / dīpaṃ / paṇḍitehi saha
Bhūpālo paṇḍitehi saha dīpaṃ rakkhati.

10. Kings worship monks with their sons.
bhūpālā / vandanti / samaṇe / puttehi saha
Bhūpālā puttehi saha samaṇe vandanti.

11. Thieves bring horses to the island.
corā / āharanti / asse / dīpaṃ
Corā asse dīpaṃ āharanti.

12. Disciples climb mountains with men.
sāvakā / āruhanti / pabbate / narehi saha
Sāvakā narehi saha pabbate āruhanti.

13. Merchants cut trees with farmers.
vāṇijā / chindanti / rukkhe / kassakehi saha
Vāṇijā kassakehi saha rukkhe chindanti.

14. The beggar digs a pit with a friend.
yācako / khaṇati / āvāṭaṃ / mittena saha
Yācako mittena saha āvāṭaṃ khaṇati.

15. The brahmin sees the moon with his uncles.
brāhmaṇo / passati / candaṃ / mātulehi saha
Brāhmaṇo mātulehi saha candaṃ passati.

16. The thief hits the horse with a sword.
coro / paharati / assaṃ / khaggena
Coro khaggena assaṃ paharati.

17. The son brings rice in a bowl.
putto / āharati / odanaṃ / pattena
Putto pattena odanaṃ āharati.

18. Boys run to the mountain with their dogs.
kumārā / dhāvanti / pabbataṃ / kukkurehi saddhiṃ
Kumārā kukkurehi saddhiṃ pabbataṃ dhāvanti.

19. Merchants come to the village by carts with farmers.
vāṇijā / āgacchanti / gāmaṃ / sakaṭehi / kassakehi saha
Vāṇijā kassakehi saha sakaṭehi gāmaṃ āgacchanti.

20. Uncles come to the monastery by chariots with their sons.
mātulā / āgacchanti / vihāraṃ / rathehi / puttehi saha
Mātulā puttehi saha rathehi vihāraṃ āgacchanti.

21. Jackals run to the mountain along the road.
sigālā / dhāvanti / pabbataṃ / maggena
Sigālā maggena pabbataṃ dhāvanti.

22. Dogs dig pits with their feet.
kukkurā / khaṇanti / āvāṭe / pādehi
Kukkurā pādehi āvāṭe khaṇanti.

23. The man carries a saw in his hand.
naro / harati / kakacaṃ / hatthena
Naro hatthena kakacaṃ harati.

24. Recluses go to heaven.
samaṇā / gacchanti / saggaṃ
Samaṇā saggaṃ gacchanti.

25. The Buddha comes to the village with his disciples.
Buddho / āgacchati / gāmaṃ / sāvakehi saddhiṃ
Buddho sāvakehi saddhiṃ gāmaṃ āgacchati.

Notes:

1. The words 'saha' and 'saddhiṃ' are indeclinables. They are used only to express the meaning of accompaniment. One exception is when "talking" or "discussing" with a person, there is no need for 'saha' and 'saddhiṃ'. [See Warder's Lesson 8 for more details.]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
metta
Chris
---The trouble is that you think you have time---
---Worry is the Interest, paid in advance, on a debt you may never owe---
---It's not what happens to you in life that is important ~ it's what you do with it ---

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Dhammanando
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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by Dhammanando » Sun Mar 29, 2009 7:03 am

Hi Pt,
pt1 wrote:So, in English, accusative is always with "to" + place? I was inclined to translate this as "Dogs run on the mountain", but I'm guessing that would also be a different declension case?
"To..." is normally indicated with the dative case. An exception is when the sentence contains a verb of motion; here the object of the verb will be in the accusative case (as in Latin and Greek).

"Run on the mountain" would require the locative case.

Best wishes,
Dhammanando Bhikkhu

pt1
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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by pt1 » Mon Mar 30, 2009 10:01 am

Thanks tilt and thanks Ven.Dhammanando for your help.

I recall there is something like "help questions" which help determine which preposition should be used with a certain declension case, but I only remember two cases:

Nominative: Who? What?
Dative: To whom? To what?

Anyone remembers other cases?

Thanks

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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by Dhammanando » Mon Mar 30, 2009 10:19 am

pt1 wrote:Anyone remembers other cases?
Nominative: Who?
Accusative: Whom?
Instrumental: By/with/through whom?
Dative: To/for the sake of whom?
Ablative: From/because of whom?
Genitive: Whose?
Locative: In/on/near whom?
Vocative: O who?

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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by pt1 » Wed Apr 01, 2009 3:21 am

Thank you Bhante, that will be very useful for the coming lessons.

Best wishes

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cooran
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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by cooran » Sun Apr 05, 2009 9:30 am

Hello Ajahn, all,

Paali Primer

Exercise 4


Translate into English
1. Coraa gaamamhaa pabbata.m dhaavanti.
thieves / [from] village / [to] mountain / run
Thieves run from the village to the mountain.

2. Daarako maatulasmaa odana.m yaacati.
child / [from] uncle / rice / begs
The child begs [for] rice from the uncle.

3. Kumaaro sopaanamhaa patati.
boy / [from] stairway / falls
The boy falls from the stairway/steps.

4. Maatulaa saa.take dhovanti.
uncles / garments / wash
Uncles wash garments.

5. Dhiivaraa pi.takehi macche aaharanti.
fishermen / [in] baskets / fish / bring
Fishermen bring fish in baskets.

6. Upaasakaa sama.nehi saddhi.m vihaarasmaa nikkhamanti.
lay devotees / [with] monks / with / [from] monastery / set out
- Lay devotees set out from the monastery with monks.
- Lay devotess leave the monastery with monks.

7. Braahma.no kakacena rukkha.m chindati.
brahmin / [with] saw / tree / cuts
The brahmin cuts the tree with [a] saw.

8. Kumaaraa mittehi saha bhuupaala.m passanti.
boys / [with] friends / with / king / see
Boys, (together) with friends, see the king.

9. Vaa.nijo assena saddhi.m pabbatasmaa oruhati.
merchant / [with] horse / with / [from] mountain / descends
The merchant descends from the mountain with [his] horse.

10. Yaacako kassakasmaa so.na.m yaacati.
beggar / [from] farmer / dog / begs
- The beggar begs (for) the dog from the farmer.
- The beggar begs the farmer for the dog.

11. Sappaa pabbatehi gaama.m otaranti.
serpents / [from] mountains / [to] village / descend
Serpents descend to the village from the mountains.

12. Amaccaa sarehi mige vijjhanti.
ministers / [with] arrows / deer / shoot
The ministers shoot deer using arrows.

13. Coro gaamamhaa saka.tena saa.take harati.
thief / [from] village / [in] cart / garments / takes away
The thief takes away the garments from the village in [a] cart.

14. Bhuupaalo amaccehi saddhi.m rathena paasaada.m aagacchati.
king / [with] ministers / with / [by] chariot / [to] palace / comes
The king comes to the palace with [his] ministers by a chariot.

15. Suukaraa paadehi aavaa.te kha.nanti.
pigs / [with] feet / pits / dig
Pigs dig pits with [their] feet.

16. Kumaaro sahaayakehi saha saa.take dhovati.
boy / [with] friends / with / garments / washes
The boy washes the garments with friends.

17. Sama.naa gaamamhaa upaasakehi saddhi.m nikkhamanti.
monks / [from] village / [with] lay devotees / with / leave
Monks leave the village with lay devotees.

18. Kukkuro pi.takamhaa maccha.m khaadati.
dog / [from] basket / fish / eat
The dog eats a fish from the basket.

19. Mitto puttamhaa sunakha.m yaacati.
friend / [from] son / dog / begs
- The friend begs the son for the dog.
- The friend asks for the dog from the son.

20. Buddho saavake pucchati
Buddha / disciples / questions
The Buddha questions [his] disciples.

21. Amaccaa pa.n.ditehi pa~nhe pucchanti.
ministers / [from] wise men / questions / ask
- The ministers ask the wise men questions.
- The ministers ask questions from the wise men.

22. Rajako sahaayena saha saa.taka.m dhovati.
washerman / [with] friend / with / garment / washes
The washerman washes the garment with [a] friend.

23. Macchaa pi.takamhaa patanti.
fish / [from] basket / fall
Fish fall from the basket.

24. Coraa paasaa.nehi varaahe paharanti.
thieves / [with] stones / pigs / hit
The thieves hit the pigs with stones.

25. Amacco paasaadamhaa suva.m aaharati
minister / [from] palace / parrot / brings
The minister brings the parrot from the palace.

Translate into Paali
1. Horses run from the village to the mountain.
assaa / dhaavanti / gaamamhaa / pabbata.m
Assaa gaamamhaa pabbata.m dhaavanti.

2. Merchants come from the island to the monastery with lay devotees.
vaa.nijaa / aagacchanti / diipasmaa / vihaara.m / upaasakehi saha
Vaa.nijaa upaasakehi saha diipasmaa vihaara.m aagacchanti.

3. Thieves shoot pigs with arrows.
coraa / vijjhanti / suukare / sarehi
Coraa sarehi suukare vijjhanti.

4. The lay devotee questions (about) the dhamma from the recluse.
upaasako / pucchati / dhamma.m / sama.namhaa
Upaasako sama.namhaa dhamma.m pucchati.

5. The child falls from the rock with a friend.
daarako / patati / paasaa.nasmaa / mittena saha
Daarako mittena saha paasaa.nasmaa patati.

6. The dog bites the child.
kukkuro / .dasati / daaraka.m
Kukkuro daaraka.m .dasati.

7. Ministers set out from the palace with the king.
amaccaa / nikkhamanti / paasaadamhaa / bhuupaalena saha
Amaccaa bhuupaalena saha paasaadamhaa nikkhamanti.

8. The man brings a deer from the island.
naro / aaharati / miga.m / diipasmaa
Naro diipasmaa miga.m aaharati.

9. The farmer gets down from the tree.
kassako / oruhati / rukkhamhaa
Kassako rukkhamhaa oruhati.

10. Dogs run along the road with horses.
kukkuraa / dhaavanti / maggena / assehi saddhi.m
Kukkuraa assehi saddhi.m maggena dhaavanti.

11. Boys take away lamps from merchants.
kumaaraa / haranti / diipe / vaa.nijehi
Kumaaraa vaa.nijehi diipe haranti.

12. The thief gets down from the stairway.
coro / oruhati / sopaanasmaa
Coro sopaanasmaa oruhati.

13. Merchants bring parrots from mountains.
vaa.nijaa / aaharanti / suve / pabbatehi
Vaa.nijaa pabbatehi suve aaharanti.

14. The horse hits the serpent with its foot.
asso / paharati / sappa.m / paadena
Asso paadena sappa.m paharati.

15. The uncle, with his friends, sees recluses from the mountains.
maatulo / mittehi saha / passati / sama.ne / pabbatehi
Maatulo mittehi saha pabbatehi sama.ne passati.

16. Merchants bring horses to the palace from the island.
vaa.nijaa / aaharanti / asse / paasaada.m / diipamhaa
Vaa.nijaa diipamhaa asse paasaada.m aaharanti.

17. The minister questions the thief.
amacco / pucchati / cora.m
Amacco cora.m pucchati.

18. The farmer eats rice with the washerman.
kassako / bhu~njati / odana.m / rajakena saha
Kassako rajakena saha odana.m bhu~njati.

19. The child falls from the stairway.
daarako / patati / sopaanamhaa
Daarako sopaanamhaa patati.

20. The fisherman climbs the mountain with his uncle.
dhiivaro / aaruhati / pabbata.m / maatulena saha
Dhiivaro maatulena saha pabbata.m aaruhati.

21. The beggar, together with his dog, sleeps.
yaacako / kukkurena saddhi.m / sayati
Yaacako kukkurena saddhi.m sayati.

22. Kings protect islands with their ministers.
bhuupaalaa / rakkhanti / diipe / amaccehi saha
Bhuupaalaa amaccehi saha diipe rakkhanti.

23. The king worships the Buddha from his palace.
bhuupaalo / vandati / Buddha.m / paasaadasmaa
Bhuupaalo paasaadasmaa Buddha.m vandati.

24. The man kills a serpent with a sword.
naro / hanati / sappa.m / khaggena
Naro khaggena sappa.m hanati.

25. Fishermen bring fish to the village in carts.
dhiivaraa / aaharanti / macche / gaama.m / saka.tehi
Dhiivaraa saka.tehi macche gaama.m aaharanti.

26. Pigs run from the village to the mountain.
suukaraa / dhaavanti / gaamamhaa / pabbata.m
Suukaraa gaamamhaa pabbata.m dhaavanti.

27. Lay devotees ask questions from the wise man.
upaasakaa / pucchanti / pa~nhe / pa.n.ditasmaa
Upaasakaa pa.n.ditasmaa pa~nhe pucchanti.

28. The son brings a parrot from the tree.
putto / aaharati / suka.m / rukkhamhaa
Putto rukkhamhaa suka.m aaharati.

29. Wise men go to the monastery.
pa.n.ditaa / gacchanti / vihaara.m
Pa.n.ditaa vihaara.m gacchanti.

30. Disciples go along the road to the village.
saavakaa / gacchanti / maggena / gaama.m
Saavakaa maggena gaama.m gacchanti.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Notes:

1. The noun following "nikkhamati" takes the ablative form:
Eg: Ministers leave the palace.
amaccaa / nikkhamanti / paasaadasmaa
Amaccaa paasaadasmaa nikkhamanti.

2(a) pucchati: questions
The minister questions the thief.
Amacco cora.m pucchati.

2(b) The minister questions the dhamma from the Buddha.
Amacco Buddhasmaa dhamma.m pucchati.

3. Do not confuse the following words:
...saka.ta - cart, saa.taka - garment;
...dhaavati - runs, dhovati - washes;
...kha.nati - digs, khaadati - eats.

metta
Chris
---The trouble is that you think you have time---
---Worry is the Interest, paid in advance, on a debt you may never owe---
---It's not what happens to you in life that is important ~ it's what you do with it ---

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Dhammanando
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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by Dhammanando » Sun Apr 05, 2009 2:55 pm

Hi all,

Several of the sentences for translation composed by De Silva seem defective to me. My impression is that she is simply translating her thoughts word for word from English to Pali without checking how things are actually expressed in the Pali texts.
2. Daarako maatulasmaa odana.m yaacati.
child / [from] uncle / rice / begs
The child begs [for] rice from the uncle.

[...]

19. Mitto puttamhaa sunakha.m yaacati.
friend / [from] son / dog / begs
- The friend begs the son for the dog.
- The friend asks for the dog from the son.

[...]

10. Yaacako kassakasmaa so.na.m yaacati.
beggar / [from] farmer / dog / begs
- The beggar begs (for) the dog from the farmer.
- The beggar begs the farmer for the dog.
In Pali texts when someone asks someone for something, both the thing asked for and the person from whom it is asked usually take the accusative:

sama.na.m gotama.m okaasa.m yaacanti
“They beg the ascetic Gotama for permission [to go forth].”

ma.m methunadhamma.m yaacati
“He begs me for sexual intercourse.”


So in the above examples it would be better if the original sentences read:

daarako maatula.m odana.m yaacati

mitto putta.m sunakha.m yaacati

yaacako kassaka.m so.na.m yaacati

The ablative case is, however, used with the past participle ‘yaacita’:

ca.n.dalehi yaacita.m bhojana.m bhu~njati
“He eats food begged from outcastes.”

18. Kukkuro pi.takamhaa maccha.m khaadati.
dog / [from] basket / fish / eat
The dog eats a fish from the basket.
The original sentence would imply that the dog eats the fish after it’s been removed from the basket. If the dog is eating the fish while it’s still in the basket then pi.taka should be in the locative case: pi.take.
4. The lay devotee questions (about) the dhamma from the recluse.
upaasako / pucchati / dhamma.m / sama.namhaa
Upaasako sama.namhaa dhamma.m pucchati.

[...]

27. Lay devotees ask questions from the wise man.
upaasakaa / pucchanti / pa~nhe / pa.n.ditasmaa
Upaasakaa pa.n.ditasmaa pa~nhe pucchanti.
Like yaacati, the verb pucchati usually takes a double accusative:

upaasako sama.na.m dhamma.m pucchati

upaasakaa pa.n.dita.m pa~nhe pucchanti

Alternatively, the thing asked about may be expressed in the locative case.

Best wishes,
Dhammanando Bhikkhu

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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by cooran » Mon Apr 06, 2009 7:45 am

pt1 wrote:Thanks for posting the answers and the additional vocabulary Chris. I agree with Branko, my memory is not that strong and only on the second time around did a few words stick. I remember we were thought in elementary school that the key is repetition - i think it was something like - repeat after the lesson, the next day, the next week, the next month, and then it will hopefully stick, so I'll try with that approach.

One thing I keep forgetting is to take the diacritics into account - especially the long ones - like aa, uu, etc. my brain just filters out the diacritics in a similar way that it filters out banners :smile:
Hello Ajahn, pt1, Branko, all,

Bhante Dhammasiha arrived back on Sunday from visiting various Singapore, West Australian and Victorian monasteries. He asked how the Pali study was going, and when I said I wasn't learning the vocab by heart, he suggested it might be a good idea to do so. He said it would help with saddhā . It's alright for you chaps - but I just know he'll ask that again next weekend! :(
(I'm not quite sure just how it helps with saddhā ....??)

metta
Chris
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---Worry is the Interest, paid in advance, on a debt you may never owe---
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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by cooran » Sun Apr 12, 2009 9:41 am

Hello Ajahn, all,

Lesson 5

VOCABULARY

1. Masculine nouns ending in -a

tāpasa hermit
ācariya teacher
vejja doctor
sīha lion
luddaka hunter
aja goat
vānara / makkaṭa monkey
lābha profit
mañca bed
kuddāla hoe

Verbs

rodati cries
hasati laughs
labhati gets, receives
pavisati enters
dadāti gives
ādadāti takes
kīḷati plays
nahāyati bathes
ākaḍḍhati drags
pajahati gives up, abandons

2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)
Dative case:

Case endings -āya / -ssa are added to the nominal base to form the dative singular.

The case ending -ānaṃ is added to form the dative plural.

Singular:

1. nara + āya / ssa = narāya / narassa (for or to the man)
2. mātula + āya / ssa = mātulāya / mātulassa (for or to the uncle)
3. kassaka + āya / ssa = kassakāya / kassakassa (for or to the farmer)

Plural:

1. nara + ānaṃ = narānaṃ (for or to men)
2. mātula + ānaṃ = mātulānaṃ (for or to uncles)
3. kassaka + ānaṃ = kassakānaṃ (for or to farmers)

3. Examples in sentence formation

Singular:

1. Dhīvaro narāya macchaṃ āharati.
The fisherman brings a fish for the man.

2. Putto mātulassa odanaṃ dadāti.
The son gives rice to the uncle.

3. Vāṇijo kassakassa ajaṃ dadāti.
The merchant gives a goat to the farmer.

Plural:

1. Dhīvarā narānaṃ macche āharanti.
Fishermen bring fish for men.

2. Puttā mātulānaṃ odanaṃ dadanti.
Sons give rice to uncles.

3. Vāṇijā kassakānaṃ aje dadanti.
Merchants give goats to farmers.

Exercise 5:

4. Translate into English:

1. Vāṇijo rajakassa sāṭakaṃ dadāti.
2. Vejjo ācariyassa dīpaṃ āharati.
3. Migā pāsāṇamhā pabbataṃ dhāvanti.
4. Manussā Buddhehi dhammaṃ labhanti.
5. Puriso vejjāya sakaṭaṃ ākaḍḍhati.
6. Dārako hatthena yācakassa bhattaṃ āharati.
7. Yācako ācariyāya āvāṭaṃ khaṇati.
8. Rajako amaccānaṃ sāṭake dadāti.
9. Brāhmaṇo sāvakānaṃ mañce āharati.
10. Vānaro rukkhamhā patati, kukkuro vānaraṃ ḍasati.
11. Dhīvarā piṭakehi amaccānaṃ macche āharanti.
12. Kassako vāṇijāya rukkhaṃ chindati.
13. Coro kuddālena ācariyāya āvāṭaṃ khaṇati.
14. Vejjo puttānaṃ bhattaṃ pacati.
15. Tāpaso luddakena saddhiṃ bhāsati.
16. Luddako tāpasassa dīpaṃ dadāti.
17. Sīhā mige hananti.
18. Makkaṭo puttena saha rukkhaṃ āruhati.
19. Samaṇā upāsakehi odanaṃ labhanti.
20. Dārakā rodanti, kumāro hasati, mātulo kumāraṃ paharati.
21. Vānarā pabbatamhā oruhanti, rukkhe āruhanti.
22. Corā rathaṃ pavisanti, amacco rathaṃ pajahati.
23. Ācariyo dārakāya rukkhamhā sukaṃ āharati.
24. Luddako pabbatasmā ajaṃ ākaḍḍhati.
25. Tāpaso pabbatamhā sīhaṃ passati.
26. Vāṇijā kassakehi lābhaṃ labhanti.
27. Luddako vāṇijānaṃ varāhe hanati.
28. Tāpaso ācariyamhā pañhe pucchati.
29. Putto mañcamhā patati.
30. Kumārā sahāyakehi saddhiṃ nahāyanti.

5. Translate into Pāli:

1. Merchants bring horses for ministers.
2. The hunter kills a goat for the merchant.
3. The man cuts trees with a saw for the farmer.
4. Deer run away from the lion.
5. The king worships the Buddha along with lay devotees.
6. Thieves run from villages to the mountains.
7. The washerman washes garments for the king.
8. The fisherman brings fish in baskets for farmers.
9. The teacher enters the monastery, sees the monks.
10. The serpent bites the monkey.
11. Boys drag the bed for the brahmin.
12. Thieves enter the palace together with men.
13. Farmers get fish from fishermen.
14. Pigs go from the island to the mountain.
15. The king abandons the palace, the son enters the monastery.
16. The lion sleeps, the monkeys play.
17. The teacher protects his sons from the dog.
18. Hunters shoot deer with arrows for ministers.
19. Children desire rice from the uncle.
20. The doctor gives a garment to the hermit.
21. The merchant brings a goat by cart for the teacher.
22. Sons see the moon from the mountain.
23. Wise men get profit from the dhamma.
24. Monkeys leave the village.
25. The son brings a parrot for his friend from the mountain.
26. The doctor enters the monastery.
27. The jackal runs from the village to the mountain along the road.
28. The cart falls off the road, the child cries.
29. The ministers go up the stairway, the doctor comes down the stairway.
30. Wise men ask questions from the Buddha.

-ooOoo-

metta
Chris
---The trouble is that you think you have time---
---Worry is the Interest, paid in advance, on a debt you may never owe---
---It's not what happens to you in life that is important ~ it's what you do with it ---

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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by Branko » Mon Apr 13, 2009 3:40 pm

I have a question regarding word tāpasa = hermit
Is it kind of synonym with the word sāmana = ascetic?

:namaste:
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cooran
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Re: Pali Primer Study Group (Lily de Silva)

Post by cooran » Mon Apr 13, 2009 8:02 pm

Hello Branko, all,

Entries in the Pali-English Dictionary:

Tāpasa
Tāpasa [from tapa & tapas] one who practises tapas, an ascetic (brahmin). Eight kinds are enumd at DA i.270 & SnA 295. -- J ii.101, 102; v.201; PvA 153; ˚pabbajjā the life of an a. J iii.119; DhA iv.29; DA i.270. -- f. tāpasī a female ascetic Mhvs vii.11, 12.
Tapassin (adj. -- n.) [tapas+vin; see tapati & tapa] one devoted to religious austerities, an ascetic (non -- Buddhist). Fig. one who exercises self -- control & attains mastery over his senses Vin i.234=A iv.184 (tapassī samaṇo Gotamo); D iii.40, 42 sq., 49; S i.29; iv.330, 337 sq.; M i.77; Sn 284 (isayo pubbakā āsuŋ saññatattā tapassino); Vv 2210; Pv i.32 (˚rūpa, under the appearance of a "holy" man: samaṇa -- patirūpaka PvA 15); ii.614 (=saŋvāraka PvA 98; tapo etesaŋ atthī ti ibid.).

Samaṇa
Samaṇa [BSk. śramaṇa, fr. śram, but mixed in meaning with śam] a wanderer, recluse, religieux A i.67; D iii.16, 95 sq., 130 sq.; S i.45; Dh 184; of a non -- Buddhist (tāpasa) J iii.390; an edifying etymology of the word DhA iii.84: "samita -- pāpattā s.," cp. Dh 265 "samitattā pāpānaŋ ʻ samaṇo ʼ ti pavuccati"; four grades mentioned D ii.151; M i.63; compare Sn 84 sq.; the state of a Samaṇa is attended by eight sukhas J i.7; the Buddha is often mentioned and addressed by nonBuddhists as Samaṇa: thus D i.4, 87; Sn p. 91, 99; Vin i.8 350; Samaṇas often opposed to Brāhmaṇas: thus, D i.13; It 58, 60; Sn, p. 90; Vin i.12; ii.110; samaṇabrāhmaṇā, Samaṇas and Brāhmaṇas quite generally: "leaders in religious life" (cp. Dial. ii.165) D i.5; ii.150; A i.110, -- 173 sq.; It 64; Sn 189; Vin ii.295; samaṇadhammaŋ the duties of a samaṇa A iii.371; J i.106, 107, 138; pure -- samaṇa a junior who walks before a Bhikkhu Vin ii.32; pacchāsamaṇa one who walks behind Vin i.186; ii.32; A iii.137. -- samaṇī a female recluse S i.133; ThA 18; J v.424, 427; Vin iv.235. -- assamaṇa not a true samaṇa Vin i.96.
-- uddesa a novice, a sāmaṇera D i.151; M iii.128; S v.161; Vin iv.139; A ii.78; iii.343. Cp. BSk. śramaṇoddeśa Divy 160. -- kuttaka (m.) who wears the dress of a Samaṇa Vin iii.68 sq. (=samaṇa -- vesa -- dhārako, Bdhgh ib. p. 271).
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metta
Chris
---The trouble is that you think you have time---
---Worry is the Interest, paid in advance, on a debt you may never owe---
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