Let's return to the Satipatthana sutta.porpoise wrote:Interesting. So how do think sampajanna is best translated? Is it something like "fully aware"?Dmytro wrote:Here the function of 'sati' is to keep in mind the particular sphere (satipatthana), while the function of 'sampajanna' is to keep track of what is going on in the particular sphere.
Dīghaṃ vā assasanto dīghaṃ assasāmīti pajānāti.
"Breathing in long, he discerns, 'I am breathing in long'.
Puna ca paraṃ bhikkhave bhikkhu gacchanto vā gacchāmīti pajānāti.
"Furthermore, when walking, the monk discerns, 'I am walking.'
Puna ca paraṃ bhikkhave bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti.
"Furthermore, when going forward & returning, he makes himself fully alert.
Satipatthana sutta is full of several forms of "sampajanna" - either in the verb form pajānāti or in the compound form sampajānakārī, which are applied to relevant parameters in the given sphere of establishing "sati". However these forms get translated by very different words in English translations.
I have argued for the translation of this word as "awareness" in the thread: "Pali Term: Sampajañña".
In contrast, 'sati' is always applied to the whole sphere of establishing 'sati', and never to individual parameters:
So satova assasati, sato passasati.
Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.
Atthi kāyoti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya patissatimattāya.
Or his mindfulness that 'There is a body' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance.
Or as explained in Dvedhavitakka sutta:
Seyyathāpi bhikkhave gimhānaṃ pacchime māse sabbasassesu gāmantasambhatesu gopālako gāvo rakkheyya. Tassa rukkhamūlagatassa vā abbhokāsagatassa vā satikaraṇīyameva hoti: etaṃ gāvoti. Evameva kho bhikkhave satikaraṇīyameva ahosi: ete dhammāti.
"Just as in the last month of the hot season, when all the crops have been gathered into the village, a cowherd would look after his cows: While resting under the shade of a tree or out in the open, he simply keeps himself mindful of 'those cows.' In the same way, I simply kept myself mindful of 'those mental qualities.'
As for the expression 'anupassī viharati', translated as 'remains focused'.
The verb 'anupassati' refers to maintaining special modes of viewing, e.g.:
aniccato anupassati, no niccato
he views as impermanent, not as permanent
yo attano attānaṃ nānupassati
he who does not view the self by means of the self
and he views its vanishing
In Satipatthana sutta, Sata sutta, and many other similar suttas, Buddha describes four special modes of viewing:
"And how is a monk mindful? There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — subduing greed & distress with reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings... mind... mental qualities in & of themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — subduing greed & distress with reference to the world. This is how a monk is mindful.
Sato bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno, ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. Kathañca bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti: idha bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Evaṃ kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti.
In these four special forms of viewing, one remains focused on a particular sphere (satipatthana) in & of itself, disregarding other spheres.
Similarly, one can be mindful to maintain some other skilful form of viewing:
Idha bhikkhave, ekacco puggalo sabbasaṅkhāresu aniccānupassī viharati aniccasaññī aniccapaṭisaṃvedī satataṃ samitaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ cetasā adhimuccamāno paññāya pariyogāhamāno. So āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati.
Here, bhikkhus, some person dwells contemplating impermanence in the eye, perceiving impermanence, experiencing impermanence, constantly, continuously, and uninterrpuptedly focusing on it with the mind, fathoming it with wisdom. With the destruction of taints, he has realized for himself with direct knowledge, in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by wisdom, and having entered upon it, dwells in it.