is there a strong relationship between vicara and vicāra?

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frank k
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is there a strong relationship between vicara and vicāra?

Post by frank k » Sat Jul 28, 2018 5:21 pm

Vicarati [vi+carati] to go or move about in (loc.), to walk (a road=acc.), to wander Sn 444 (raṭṭhā raṭṭhaŋ vicarissaŋ, fut.), 696 (dhamma -- maggaŋ); Nd1 201, 263 Pv iii.73 (aor. vicari); DhA i.66; PvA 4, 22, 33, 69 120, 185 (=āhiṇḍati); Sdhp 133. -- In Sn often with loke (in this world), e. g. Sn 466, 501, 845, 846, 864. <-> Caus. vicāreti; pp. vicarita, vicārita & viciṇṇa. Cp anu˚.;

I'm interested for the context of vitakka and vicāra. In KN Pe, vicara (walking around exploring) carati, and variations vicāra are used in the definition.

In KN Sn, vicara is used several times in the literal "walking around exploring" sense. Both cāra and cara seem related to the word for walking and walking meditation.

KN Peṭ, 7. hārasampātabhūmi, para. 3 ⇒

vitakkāti tayo vitakkā — nekkhammavitakko abyāpādavitakko avihiṃsāvitakko. tattha paṭhamābhinipāto vitakko,
paṭiladdhassa vicaraṇaṃ vicāro.

yathā puriso dūrato purisaṃ passati āgacchantaṃ, na ca tāva jānāti eso itthīti vā purisoti vā yadā tu paṭilabhati itthīti vā purisoti vā evaṃ vaṇṇoti vā evaṃ saṇṭhānoti vā ime vitakkayanto uttari upaparikkhanti kiṃ nu kho ayaṃ sīlavā udāhu dussīlo aḍḍho vā duggatoti vā. evaṃ vicāro vitakke appeti, vicāro cariyati ca anuvattati ca. yathā pakkhī pubbaṃ āyūhati pacchā nāyūhati yathā āyūhanā evaṃ vitakko, yathā pakkhānaṃ pasāraṇaṃ

evaṃ vicāro anupālati vitakketi vicarati vicāreti.
vitakkayati vitakketi, anuvicarati vicāreti.

kāmasaññāya paṭipakkho vitakko, byāpādasaññāya vihiṃsasaññāya ca paṭipakkho vicāro. vitakkānaṃ kammaṃ akusalassa amanasikāro, vicārānaṃ kammaṃ jeṭṭhānaṃ saṃvāraṇā. yathā paliko tuṇhiko sajjhāyaṃ karoti evaṃ vitakko, yathā taṃyeva anupassati evaṃ vicāro. yathā apariññā evaṃ vitakko. yathā pariññā evaṃ vicāro. niruttipaṭisambhidāyañca paṭibhānapaṭisambhidāyañca vitakko, dhammapaṭisambhidāyañca atthapaṭisambhidāyañca vicāro. kallitā kosallattaṃ cittassa vitakko, abhinīhārakosallaṃ cittassa vicāro . idaṃ kusalaṃ idaṃ akusalaṃ idaṃ bhāvetabbaṃ idaṃ pahātabbaṃ idaṃ sacchikātabbanti vitakko, yathā pahānañca bhāvanā ca sacchikiriyā ca evaṃ vicāro. imesu vitakkavicāresu ṭhitassa duvidhaṃ dukkhaṃ na uppajjati kāyikañca cetasikañca; duvidhaṃ sukhaṃ uppajjati kāyikañca cetasikañca. iti vitakkajanitaṃ cetasikaṃ sukhaṃ pīti kāyikaṃ sukhaṃ kāyikoyeva. yā tattha cittassa ekaggatā, ayaṃ samādhi. iti paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ pañcaṅgavippahīnaṃ pañcaṅgasamannāgataṃ.
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frank k
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Re: is there a strong relationship between vicara and vicāra?

Post by frank k » Sun Jul 29, 2018 7:35 pm

In MN 137, it looks like upa-vicāra and vicarati are pretty equivalent (notice the difference between 'cara' and 'cāra')


vicarati: goes about; wanders. (vi + car + a)


mano-'pa-vicārā

Upavicāra [upa + vicāra; cp. BSk. upavicāra Divy 19, trsld on p. 704 in Notes by "perplexed by doubts" (?) applying (one's mind) to, discrimination D iii.245 (domanass˚); M iii.239; S iv.232 (somanass˚ etc.); A iii.363 sq.; v.134; Ps i.17; Dh 8, 85, 284; Vbh 381.



bodhi: mental exploration


“‘The eighteen kinds of mental exploration should be understood. ’1235 "" So it was said. And with reference to what was this said?

“On seeing a form with the eye, one explores a form productive of joy, one explores a form productive of grief, one explores a form productive of equanimity.1236 "" On hearing a sound with the ear…On smelling an odour with the nose…On tasting a flavour with the tongue…[217] On touching a tangible with the body… On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, one explores a mind-object productive of joy, one explores a mind-object productive of grief, one explores a mind-object productive of equanimity. Thus there are six kinds of exploration with joy, six kinds of exploration with grief, and six kinds of exploration with equanimity. So it was with reference to this that it was said: ‘The eighteen kinds of mental exploration should be understood.’


sujato: mental neighborhoods

Aṭṭhārasa manopavicārā veditabbā’ti—iti kho panetaṃ vuttaṃ. Kiñcetaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ? ‘Cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ upavicarati. Sotena saddaṃ sutvā … pe … ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā … jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā … kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā … manasā dhammaṃ viññāya somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati. Iti cha somanassūpavicārā, cha domanassūpavicārā, cha upekkhūpavicārā, aṭṭhārasa manopavicārā veditabbā’ti—iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ idametaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ. (5)
‘The eighteen mental neighborhoods should be understood.’ That’s what I said, but why did I say it? Seeing a sight with the eye, you linger in the neighborhood of a sight that’s a basis for happiness or sadness or equanimity. Hearing a sound with the ear … Smelling an odor with the nose … Tasting a flavor with the tongue … Feeling a touch with the body … Becoming conscious of a thought with the mind, you linger in the neighborhood of a phenomena that’s a basis for happiness or sadness or equanimity. So there are six neighborhoods near happiness, six neighborhoods near sadness, and six neighborhoods near equanimity. ‘The eighteen mental neighborhoods should be understood.’ That’s what I said, and this is why I said it.


thanissaro: explorations
“‘The eighteen explorations for the intellect should be known’: Thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? Seeing a form via the eye, one explores a form that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for equanimity. Hearing a sound via the ear… Smelling an aroma via the nose… Tasting a flavor via the tongue… Touching a tactile sensation via the body… Cognizing an idea via the intellect, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for equanimity. The eighteen explorations for the intellect should be known’: Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.
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frank k
Posts: 152
Joined: Sat Jan 01, 2011 4:55 pm

Re: is there a strong relationship between vicara and vicāra?

Post by frank k » Mon Jul 30, 2018 11:48 pm

I've been doing an exhaustive DPR seach for "vicar", results so far here:

https://discourse.suttacentral.net/t/di ... ra/10129/9

So far to me it looks like vicara, vicāra, anuvicara, upavicara all seem to mean about the same thing, whether it's physical exploration or mental exploration.
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