what are the different words for "seeing"?

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frank k
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what are the different words for "seeing"?

Post by frank k » Sat Jul 28, 2018 5:06 pm

are passati and dassati synonymous? they both seem to originate from sanskrit dṛś?

I'm working on translating some suttas literally and consistently, and I'm working if consistently translating the passati = seeing, dassati = viewing, would lead to more transparent understanding from reading the english translation which pali word is being used. For example:

samma ditthi = right view
sammap-pañña datthabbam = with right wisdom it should be "viewed".
anu-passana = continous "seeing".
vi-passana = clear "seeing".
cakkhuna rupam disva = with the eye, forms are viewed.
naña dassana = knowledge and vision.

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passati: sees; finds; understands. (dis + a; dis is changed to pas.)

Passati [Vedic paśyati & *spaśati (aor. aspaṣṭa, Caus. spāśayati etc.); cp. Av. spasyeiti, Gr. ske/ptomai, (E "scepsis"); Lat. species etc.; Ohg. spehon=Ger spāhen (E. spy). -- The paradigm pass˚, which in literary Sk. is restricted to the pres. stem (paś) interchanges with the paradigm dakkh˚ & dass˚ ;(dṛś): see dassati1] 1. to see -- Pres. passati Vin i.322; S i.69 132, 198; ii.29; Sn 313, 647, 953, 1063, 1142 (cp. Nd2 428); Pv i.23; Miln 218; PvA 11, 102; 1st pl. passāma Sn 76, 153, 164; Pv i.101 (as future); imper. sg. passa Sn 435, 580, 588, 756; J i.223; ii.159; Pv ii.116, 119 PvA 38; pl. passatha S ii.25; Sn 176 sq., 777, & passavho (cp. Sk. paśyadhvaŋ) Sn 998. -- ppr. passaŋ (see Geiger, P.Gr. 972) M ii.9; Sn 739, 837, 909; ;passanto J iii.52; PvA 5, 6; f. passantī S i.199. -- grd passitabba J iv.390 (a˚). -- fut. passissati Pv ii.46 PvA 6. -- aor. passi J ii.103, 111; iii.278, 341.

2. to recognise, realise, know: only in combn with jānāti (pres. jānāti passati; ppr. jānaŋ passaŋ): see jānāti 11.

3. to find Sn 1118 (=vindati paṭilabhati Nd2 428b); J iii.55; Pv ii.99. -- Cp. vi˚.


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*Dassati1 [Sk. *darś in dadarśa pref. to dṛś; caus. darśayati. Cp. Gr. de/rkomai to see; Oir. derc eye; Ags torht; Goth. ga -- tarhjan to make conspicuous. The regular Pāli Pres. is dakkhiti (younger dakkhati), a new formation from the aor. addakkhi=Sk. adrākṣīt The Sk. Fut. draksyati would correspond formally to dakkhati, but the older dakkhiti points toward derivation from addakkhi. This new Pres. takes the function of the Fut.; whereas the Caus. dasseti implies a hypothetical Pres. *dassati. On dakkhati, etc. see also Kuhn, Beitr. p. 116; Trenckner, Notes pp. 57, 61 Pischel, Prk. Gr. § 554] to see, to perceive.
1. (pres.) base dakkh [Sk. drakṣ]: pres. (a) dakkhati Nd2 428 (=passati), 1st dakkhāmi ibid. (=passāmi) 2nd dakkhasi S i.116; Pv ii.113 (v. l. BB adakkhi) imper. dakkha Nd2 428 (=passa). -- (b) dakkhiti Sn 909 (v. l. BB dakkhati), 3rd pl. dakkhinti Vin i.16≈Sn p. 15 (v. l. BB dakkhanti); D i.46. -- aor. addakkhi (Sk adrakṣīt) Vin ii.195; S i.117; Sn 208 (=addasa SnA 257), 841, 1131; It 47; J iii.189; & dakkhi It 47; 1st sg. addakkhiŋ Sn 938. Spelling also adakkhi (v. l BB at Pv ii.113) & adakkhiŋ (Nd;2 423). -- inf. dakkhituŋ Vin i.179. -- Caus. p.p. dakkhāpita (shown, exhibited) Miln 119. -- Der. dakkhin (q. v.).
2. (pret.) base dass (Sk. darś & draś): aor. (a) ;addasa (Sk. adarśat) Sn 358, 679, 1016; J i.222; iv.2; Pv ii.323 (mā addasa=addakkhiŋ PvA 88); DhA i.26; PvA 73 & (older, cp. agamā) ;addasā Vin ii.192, 195; D i.112 ii.16; Sn 409 (v. l. BB addasa), 910 (id.); Miln 24, 1st sg. addasaŋ S i.101; Nd2 423 & addasaŋ Sn 837 (=adakkhiŋ Nd1 185), 1st pl. addasāma Sn 31, 178, 459, 3rd pl. (mā) addasuŋ Pv ii.76 (=mā passiŋsu PvA 102). <-> (b) addasāsi, 1st sg. addasāsiŋ Sn 937, 1145; Vv 3552 (v. l. addasāmi), 3rd pl. addasāsuŋ Vin ii.195; D ii.16 M i.153. -- (c) shortened forms of aor. are: adda Th 1 986; addā J vi.125, 126. -- inf. daṭṭhuŋ Sn 685 (daṭṭhukāma); J i.290; Pv iv.13 (=passituŋ PvA 219); PvA 48, 79; VvA 75. -- ger. daṭṭhu (=Sk. dṛṣṭvā) Sn 424 (in phrase nekkhammaŋ daṭṭhu khemato)=1098; 681 Expl. at Nd2 292 with expl. of disvā=passitvā, etc. <-> grd. daṭṭhabba (to be regarded as) D ii.154; PvA 8, 9 10, etc., Vism 464; & dassanīya (see sep.). Also in Caus. (see below) & in daṭṭhar (q. v.).;
3. (med. -- pass.) base diss (Sk. dṛś): pres. pass. dissati (to be seen, to appear) Vin i.16; Sn 194, 441, 688 (dissare), 956; J i.138; Dh 304; Pv i.84; PvA 61 (dissasi you look, intrs.); ppr. dissamāna (visible) PvA 71, 6 (˚rūpa), 162 (id.); VvA 78 (˚kāya); Mhvs. vii.35, & der ;dissamānatta (nt.) (visibility) PvA 103. -- ger. disvā Sn 48, 409, 687 sq. It 76; PvA 67, 68, etc., & disvāna Vin i.15; ii.195; Sn 299, 415, 1017; Pv ii.87, etc., also a ger. form diṭṭhā, q. v. under adiṭṭhā. -- pp. diṭṭha (q. v.).
4. Caus. (of base 2) dasseti (Sk. darśayati), aor dassesi & (exceptional) ;dassayi, only in dassayi tumaŋ showed himself at Pv iii.24 (=attānaŋ uddisayi PvA 181) & iii.216 (=attānaŋ dassayi dassesi pākaṭo ahosi PvA 185). 3rd pl. dassesuŋ; ger. dassetvā; inf. dassetuŋ to point out, exhibit, explain, intimate Dh 83 J i.84, 200, 263, 266; ii.128, 159; iii.53, 82; PvA 4, 8 16 (ovādaŋ d. give advice), 24, 45, 73 etc. -- to point to (acc.) PvA 151 (sunakhaŋ), 257 (dārakaŋ). -- to make manifest, to make appear, to show or prove oneself; also intr. to appear J ii.154 (dubbalo viya hutvā attānaŋ dassesi: appeared weak); vi.116; Pv iii.23 (=sammukhībhāvaŋ gacchanti PvA 181); PvA 13 (mitto viya attānaŋ dassetvā: acting like a friend) Miln 271. Esp. in phrase attānaŋ dasseti to come into appearance (of Petas): PvA 32, 47, 68, 79, etc. (cp above dassayi). -- pp. dassita.
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Coëmgenu
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Re: what are the different words for "seeing"?

Post by Coëmgenu » Mon Jul 30, 2018 9:19 pm

frank k wrote:
Sat Jul 28, 2018 5:06 pm
naña dassana = knowledge and vision.
See also the Sanskrit darshana (my cell phone has no diacritics), perhaps in their context of the Mahaayaana Darshanamargha ("path of seeing"), also in its usage in Hinduism, usually translated as just "seeing".
如無為,如是難見、不動、不屈、不死、無漏、覆蔭、洲渚、濟渡、依止、擁護、不流轉、離熾焰、離燒然、流通、清涼、微妙、安隱、無病、無所有、涅槃。
Like this is the uncreated, like this is that which is difficult to realize, with no moving, no bending, no dying. Utterly lacking secretions and smothered in the dark, it is the island shore. Where there is ferrying, it is the crossing. It is dependency's ceasing, it is the end of circulating transmissions. It is the exhaustion of the flame, it is the ending of the burning. Flowing openly, pure and cool, with secret subtlety, and calm occultation, lacking ailment, lacking owning, nirvāṇa.
Asaṁskṛtadharmasūtra, Sermon on the Uncreated Phenomenon, T99.224b7, Saṁyuktāgama 890

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