Pali Term: Bodhi

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Dmytro
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Pali Term: Bodhi

Post by Dmytro » Mon Aug 15, 2016 5:03 am

Hello Pali friends,

The word "Bodhi" has been variously translated as "Enlightenment", "Awakening", etc.
Let's explore the meaning of this word in more detail.

From Pasadika sutta (DN 29):
Yañca kho, cunda, sadevakassa lokassa samārakassa sabrahmakassa sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya diṭṭhaṃ sutaṃ mutaṃ viññātaṃ pattaṃ pariyesitaṃ anuvicaritaṃ manasā, sabbaṃ tathāgatena abhisambuddhaṃ, tasmā ‘tathāgato’ti vuccati. Yañca, cunda, rattiṃ tathāgato anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambujjhati, yañca rattiṃ anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbāyati, yaṃ etasmiṃ antare bhāsati lapati niddisati.

'Cunda, whatever in this world with its devas and maras and Brahmas, with its ascetics and Brahmins, its princes and people, is seen by people, heard, sensed, cognized, whatever was ever achieved, sought after or mentally pondered upon -- all that has been fully comprehended [abhisambuddham] by the Tathagata. That is why he is called Tathagata. Between the night in which the Tathagata comprehends [abhisambujjhati] the unequalled Perfect Comprehension (samma-sambodhi), Cunda, and the night in which he goes out to the Nibbana-element without remainder, whatever he proclaims, says or explains is so and not otherwise.'
Though the verb 'bujjhati' has also a meaning 'awakes', this meaning is mentioned only in few places in the Commentaries:
Bujjhatīti kilesasantānaniddāya uṭṭhahati, cattāri vā ariyasaccāni paṭivijjhati, nibbānameva vā sacchikaroti.

"Awakes - arises from the sleep of defilement-flow"

(Dhammasangani-Atthakatha)
In the suttas, Bodhi is precisely defined as the Comprehension, of the four Actualities for the Noble Ones (ariya-sacca).

Perfect Comprehension (samma-sambodhi) comprises a whole universe:

Comprehension of the Four Actualities for the Noble Ones (cattāro ariyasaccāni)
Yāvakīvañca me, bhikkhave, imesu catūsu ariyasaccesu evaṃ tiparivaṭṭaṃ dvādasākāraṃ yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇadassanaṃ na suvisuddhaṃ ahosi, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.

"And, monks, as long as this — my three-round, twelve-permutation knowledge & vision concerning these four noble truths as they have come to be — was not pure, I did not claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos with its deities, Maras, & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & brahmans, its royalty & commonfolk. [But as soon as this — my three-round, twelve-permutation knowledge & vision concerning these four noble truths as they have come to be — was truly pure, then I did claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos with its deities, Maras & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & brahmans, its royalty & commonfolk. Knowledge & vision arose in me: 'Unprovoked is my release. This is the last birth. There is now no further becoming.'"]

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html
Similarly regarding four elements (dhātū - paṭhavī, apo, tejo, vāyo - solid, liquid, fire, gas):
Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imāsaṃ catunnaṃ dhātūnaṃ evaṃ assādañca assādato ādīnavañca ādīnavato nissaraṇañca nissaraṇato yathābhūtaṃ na abbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddhoti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Pubbesambodha sutta).
Similarly regarding five appropriated aggregates (upādānakkhandhā - rūpa, vedanā, saññā, saṅkhārā, viññāṇa - body, feelings, recognitions, volitions, consciousness):
‘‘Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imesaṃ pañcannaṃ upādānakkhandhānaṃ evaṃ assādañca assādato ādīnavañca ādīnavato nissaraṇañca nissaraṇato yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddhoti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Assāda sutta).
Similarly regarding four "turns" of appropriated aggregates (Upādānaparipavattā - aggregate, its arising, its cessation, and the way to cessation):
Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, ime pañcupādānakkhandhe catuparivaṭṭaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddhoti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Upādānaparipavattā sutta)
Similarly regarding six inner spheres of perception (ajjhattikā āyatanā - cakkhūṃ, sota, ghāna, jivhā, kāya, mano - sight, hearing, etc. ):
Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imesaṃ channaṃ ajjhattikānaṃ āyatanānaṃ evaṃ assādañca assādato, ādīnavañca ādīnavato, nissaraṇañca nissaraṇato yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ
(Paṭhama-pubbesambodha sutta)
Similarly regarding six outer spheres of perception (bāhirā āyatanā - visible forms, sounds, etc.)
Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imesaṃ channaṃ bāhirānaṃ āyatanānaṃ evaṃ assādañca assādato, ādīnavañca ādīnavato, nissaraṇañca nissaraṇato yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Dutiya-pubbesambodha sutta)
Similarly regarding five faculties (pañcā indriyāni - saddhindriyaṃ, vīriyindriyaṃ, satindriyaṃ, samādhindriyaṃ, paññindriyaṃ - faith, persistence, remembrance, composure, discernment):
Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imesaṃ pañcannaṃ indriyānaṃ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Punabbhavasutta)
Similarly regarding six faculties (cha indriyāni - cakkhuṃ, sota, ghāna, jivhā, kāya, mano - sight, hearing, etc.)
Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imesaṃ channaṃ indriyānaṃ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassa maṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Sambuddha sutta)
Similarly regarding the world (loka):
Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, evaṃ lokassa assādañca assādato ādīnavañca ādīnavato nissaraṇañca nissaraṇato yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Pubbevasambodha sutta)
Similarly regarding bonds to another sex of to pleasurable rebirth (aññataraññataramethunasaṃyoga):
‘‘Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, brāhmaṇa, imesaṃ sattannaṃ methunasaṃyogānaṃ aññataraññataramethunasaṃyogaṃ attani appahīnaṃ samanupassiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, brāhmaṇa, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddhoti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Methuna suttaṃ)
Similarly regarding the knowledge and vision of higher gods (adhidevañāṇadassana):
Yāvakīvañca me, bhikkhave, evaṃ aṭṭhaparivaṭṭaṃ adhidevañāṇadassanaṃ na suvisuddhaṃ ahosi, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, ‘sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Gayāsīsa sutta)
Similarly regarding the nine consecutive attainments (anupubbavihārasamāpattiyā - cattāro rūpajjhānā, cattāro aruppajjhāna, saññāvedayitanirodha - four bodily jhanas, four non-bodily jhanas, cessation of recognition and feeling):
Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, ānanda, imā nava anupubbavihārasamāpattiyo na evaṃ anulomapaṭilomaṃ samāpajjimpi vuṭṭhahimpi, neva tāvāhaṃ, ānanda, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.

"Ananda, as long as I had not attained & emerged from these nine step-by-step dwelling-attainments in forward & backward order in this way, I did not claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos with its devas, Maras, & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & brahmans, its royalty & common people. But as soon as I had attained & emerged from these nine step-by-step dwelling-attainments in forward & backward order in this way, then I did claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos with its devas, Maras, & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & brahmans, its royalty & common people. Knowledge & vision arose in me: 'My release is unshakable. This is the last birth. There is now no further becoming.'"

Tapussa sutta http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html
Metta,
Dmytro
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Re: Pali Term: Bodhi

Post by Dmytro » Mon Aug 15, 2016 5:11 am

Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi writes:

"There has currently been a shift among translators and writers on the Dhamma away from "enlightenment" as a rendering of bodhi/sambodhi toward "awakening." This is, in my view, a mistake. It implies that our normal condition of life is a dream—something unreal and illusory—and that the aim of following the Dhamma is to emerge from this dream-like illusion into reality (often conceived as a nondual state). The Nikāyas, however, do not use this kind of language, nor do they suggest that ordinary life is analogous to a dream. A further drawback with "awakening" it that it suggests a superficial and *sudden* experience, like the sudden emergence from a dream. On the other hand "enlightenment" suggests to me a deep and thorough comprehension, one that might be reached by a long course of prior cultivation.

I have rarely if ever encountered in the suttas the metaphorical use of sleep and dreaming to characterize the condition of deluded sentient beings in samsara; thus "awakening," which represents sambodhi as the emergence from sleep or a dream, rarely if ever occurs in the suttas. The metaphor does occur very occasionally in the Aṭṭhakathā, in a stock commentarial passage on the bojjhangas. Such instances however are extremely rare. Normally, when sleep is used metaphorically, it signifies a condition of pamāda rather than of bodhi/sambodhi. Thus it indicates, not the opposite of bodhi/sambodhi, but the opposite of appamāda or jāgariya, "heedlessness" and "vigilence." Thus a verse at SN 1:7 (I 3) says:
‘‘Pañca jāgarataṃ suttā, pañca suttesu jāgarā;

Pañcabhi [pañcahi (sī.)] rajamādeti, pañcabhi [pañcahi (sī.)] parisujjhatī’’ti
And in Dhammapada 29 we read:
Appamatto pamattesu, suttesu bahujāgaro;

Abalassaṃva sīghasso, hitvā yāti sumedhaso.
And Dhammapada 47:
Pupphāni heva pacinantaṃ, byāsattamanasaṃ naraṃ;

Suttaṃ gāmaṃ mahoghova, maccu ādāya gacchati.
The word “enlightenment” seems to me preferable as a rendering over “awakening.” To my mind the word does not suggest the European Enlightenment, the triumph of reason and experience over blind faith and religious dogma. Also, it no longer carries the connotation of a "lighting up" of the mind, the root metaphor from which it was formed. Yet to the extent that it does stem from the word "light," it connects far more closely with the Buddha's sambodhi experience.

This is because the metaphor and imagery used with greatest frequency to describe the condition of samsaric existence is not dreaming but darkness (tamas, andhakāra, etc.). Thus the metaphor which, in contrast, describes the Buddha's experience of sammā sambodhi is the dispelling of darkness and the arising of light and vision. Thus in a frequent passage (as at MN 19; I 117):
Tassa me evaṃ jānato evaṃ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccittha, bhavāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccittha, avijjāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccittha, vimuttasmiṃ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṃ ahosi – ‘khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā’ti abbhaññāsiṃ. Ayaṃ kho me, bhikkhave, rattiyā pacchime yāme tatiyā vijjā adhigatā; avijjā vihatā vijjā uppannā; tamo vihato āloko uppanno; yathā taṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato.
The refrain that occurs in the Dhammacakka Sutta (SN 56:11) and in a number of other suttas states:
Pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhuṃ udapādi, ñāṇaṃ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.

"In regard to principles not passed down before, the eye arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, cognition arose, light arose."

And in the Dvayatānupassanā Sutta of the Suttanipāta:
762. ... Passa dhammaṃ durājānaṃ, sampamūḷh’ettha aviddasu

763. Nivutānaṃ tamo hoti, andhakāro apassataṃ.

Satañca vivaṭaṃ hoti, āloko passatāmiva;


Santike na vijānanti, magā dhammass' akovidā.



"Behold a Dhamma hard to understand; here the ignorant are bewildered.
For those who are shrouded there is gloom,
darkness for those who do not see.
For the good it is opened up;
for those who see it is like light.


Though in its presence, they do not understand it--
those who are like animals, unskilled in the Dhamma."

http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/pali ... sages/4002 "
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Re: Pali Term: Bodhi

Post by Dmytro » Mon Aug 15, 2016 5:16 am

Ven. Nyanatusita writes:

"The Buddha himself explained his bodhi in two verses, found in three suttas (and quoted in the Kathavatthu and Vimuttimagga), as follows:
Sīlaṃ samādhi paññā ca, vimutti ca anuttarā;
Anubuddhā ime dhammā, gotamena yasassinā.

Iti buddho abhiññāya, dhammamakkhāsi bhikkhunaṃ;
Dukkhassantakaro satthā, cakkhumā parinibbuto ti.


D II 123; A II 2; A IV 105

Which you [Bhikkhu Bodhi] translate in Numerical Discourses as
Virtuous behavior, concentration, wisdom,
and unsurpassed liberation:
these things the illustrious Gotama understood by himself.

Having directly known these things,
the Buddha taught the Dhamma to the bhikkhus.
The Teacher, the end-maker of suffering,
the One with Vision, has attained nibbana.
The Buddha here says that he “understood” or “realized”, anubuddha, four dhammas, and then says that the “Buddha, having directly known thus”, abhiññāya, “taught the Dhamma to the bhikkhus.”
The anubuddha to these four states is the cause for Gotama becoming a Buddha. Since abhiññāya is used instead of anubuddha in the second verse, and since cakkhumā, “one with vision” is used as a synonym for Buddha, it seems to me that the emphasis here lies on the aspect of understanding and realization and vision with the light of wisdom rather than “awakening” from the sleep of ignorance.

If anubuddhā ime dhammā would be translated as “awoke to these dhammas” it would not match with “directly known” abhiññāya and paṭividdhā “penetrated” or “comprehended” as used in the preceding prose section along with anubuddhā:
Tayidaṃ, bhikkhave, ariyaṃ sīlaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ, ariyo samādhi anubuddho paṭividdho, ariyā paññā anubuddhā paṭividdhā, ariyā vimutti anubuddhā paṭividdhā, ucchinnā bhavataṇhā, khīṇā bhavanetti, natthi dāni punabbhavo’’ti.
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Re: Pali Term: Bodhi

Post by Buddha Vacana » Mon Aug 15, 2016 11:45 am

Greetings Dmytro,

Thank you for this valuable and interesting research, which is greatly appreciated, all the more that it allows for an interesting discussion. I would have several remarks to make though. First, it would also be much appreciated to systematically provide a translation when there is a text in Pali, because not everyone here can translate Pali on the fly while reading it. This is not just my opinion, it's written in the forum's TOS. Also, it is nice to systematically use the quote tags for quotes so we know exactly where they end and where the user's personal text starts (relevant for Bhikkhu Bodhi's and Ven. Nanatusita's quotes above).
Dmytro wrote:Though the verb 'bujjhati' has also a meaning 'awakes', this meaning is mentioned only in few places in the Commentaries:
This is inaccurate. SN 1.7 states (by the way the quote provided earlier as SN 1.7 was actually SN 1.6):
“yesaṃ dhammā appaṭividitā,
paravādesu nīyare.
suttā te nappabujjhanti,
kālo tesaṃ pabujjhitun”ti.

“Those who have not penetrated things,
Who may be led into others’ doctrines,
Fast asleep, they have not yet awakened:
It is time for them to awaken.”
This was the translation by Bhikkhu Bodhi, who by the way despite his negative opinion about bodhi meaning awakening, translates pabujjhati as 'to awaken'.

But coming back on the earlier claim, here pabujjhati is directly opposed to suttā (asleep, as past participle of supati, to sleep), so clearly meaning 'to awaken'.

Also, Bhikkhu Bodhi translates ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ as ‘I have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment’. "Buddho soppati" as "The Awakened One sleeps". I could multiply examples, but the point is in my opinion that when context and grammatical forms vary, "awakening" is the word that fits better in a larger panel of situations.

If (pa/anu/sam/abhisam)bujjhati means 'to awaken', logically 'bodhi' should mean 'awakening'. This rendering has drawbacks as explained by ven. Bodhi, like every other rendering, but at least it remains consistent in the various contexts.

To me the meaning of the word 'bodhi' often seems closer to 'ultimate knowledge' than either 'enlightenment' or 'awakening'.

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Re: Pali Term: Bodhi

Post by Dmytro » Mon Aug 15, 2016 4:14 pm

Greetings,
Buddha Vacana wrote: First, it would also be much appreciated to systematically provide a translation when there is a text in Pali, because not everyone here can translate Pali on the fly while reading it. This is not just my opinion, it's written in the forum's TOS.
Fortunately, TOS give quite different formulation. However, your attempt to coach me is a direct violation of TOS, paragraph 2 d).

I have already been banned, partly with similar pretext, however I insist that the requirement to translate every Pali word in English makes thoughtful and deep discussion here on the Pali forum impossible. I understand that reading such posts requires some effort, - clearly this is not fiction. I give English translations for key passages, and I can't do more.
Buddha Vacana wrote:
Dmytro wrote:Though the verb 'bujjhati' has also a meaning 'awakes', this meaning is mentioned only in few places in the Commentaries:
This is inaccurate. SN 1.7 states ...
Evidently you have misunderstood my statement. This meaning is indeed mentioned only in few places in the Commentaries.

As for the Sutta, SN 1:6 (or SN 1.7, in another numbering), mentioned above by Bhikkhu Bodhi, is one of the very few places where 'pabujjhati' comes anywhere close to 'awakening'.
This was the translation by Bhikkhu Bodhi, who by the way despite his negative opinion about bodhi meaning awakening, translates pabujjhati as 'to awaken'.
The current stagnation in Pali lexicography is partly due to dogmatic use of old translations of terms, even in cases when the original translators have changed their opinion. Unfortunately, translators tend to repeat old known translations of terms, even when they are outdated and incorrect.

This is a usual process for cultural appropriation of Buddhism, - similar standartization of established terms occured in China and Tibet. However, as the examples of China and Tibet show, standartization of terms eventually began to hinder their understanding. And now, in Buddhist Hybrid English, very few readers, for example, would understand the meaning of 'sign', an established translation of 'nimitta', a translation often used regardless of context, while the original term has several meanings depending on context.

So it's important to question and research established translations like 'Awakening', even though they have obtained popular mythology, and seem to be dogmatically cast in concrete.

Words should be translated according to context, and not according to uniform Buddhist Hybrid English.

In the case of 'Bodhi', the verb is:
abhi-sambujjhati, pr. 3 sg. [sa. *abhi + sam-budhyate, budh], to attain perfect understanding of (paron, with sammā-sambodhiṁ); to become a buddha

(Critical Pali Dictionary)
The context clearly points out as synonyms "abhi-jānāti, pr. 3 sg. [sa. abhi + jñā], 1. to know (by intuitioṅ), understand", and "samanupassiṃ" - "I have seen", "ñāṇadassana", - "knowledge and vision":

Regarding the world (loka):
Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, evaṃ lokassa assādañca assādato ādīnavañca ādīnavato nissaraṇañca nissaraṇato yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Pubbevasambodha sutta)
Similarly regarding bonds to another sex of to pleasurable rebirth (aññataraññataramethunasaṃyoga):
‘‘Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, brāhmaṇa, imesaṃ sattannaṃ methunasaṃyogānaṃ aññataraññataramethunasaṃyogaṃ attani appahīnaṃ samanupassiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, brāhmaṇa, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddhoti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Methuna suttaṃ)
Similarly regarding the knowledge and vision of higher gods (adhidevañāṇadassana):
Yāvakīvañca me, bhikkhave, evaṃ aṭṭhaparivaṭṭaṃ adhidevañāṇadassanaṃ na suvisuddhaṃ ahosi, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, ‘sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Gayāsīsa sutta)
Best wishes,
Dmytro

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Re: Pali Term: Bodhi

Post by Buddha Vacana » Tue Aug 16, 2016 8:32 pm

Perhaps it could be said that when used metaphorically, 'bodhi' may be understood in the lines of what is suggested in the PTSD: "supreme knowledge", if we subscribe unconditionally to the opinion that "Words should be translated according to context".

But I think it makes sense to introduce in the target language the metaphors and abstractions that were used in Pali, in the present case by using the word "awakening" with the meaning "supreme knowledge", because semantically, 'bodhi' and its lexical derivatives do revolve closely around "awakening" in the concrete sense, that is from sleep. There is plenty of evidence to support that. I can give full quotations if someone is interested, but quickly said they could include Vin 3.33, SN 1.7, SN 1.8, SN 6.4, AN 7.61, AN 5.210, AN 8.1, AN 11.15, AN 4.246, MN 54 and SN 7.10.

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