‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

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‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

Post by Dhammanando » Fri Aug 31, 2018 11:46 pm

Anattasaññī asmimānasamugghātaṃ pāpuṇāti.

“Perceiving not-self, one attains the uprooting of the ‘I am’ conceit.”
(Mehghiyasutta, Ud 37; Sambodhisutta, AN. iv. 353)


In the thread devoted to the teachings of Ven. Abhayaratanalankara it has been claimed that:
Lal wrote:
Thu Aug 30, 2018 9:52 am
Key words like anicca and anatta CANNOT be simply translated as “impermanence” and “no-self”.
Instead it is claimed that anicca needs to be understood as aniccha, attā as attha, and anattā as anattha, as taught by Abhayaratanalankara. Furthermore it is claimed that this supposedly correct understanding of these terms, though blatantly in conflict with the Mahāvihāra Atthakathās (not to mention the understanding of all Indian Buddhist schools whose texts survive), can nonetheless be supported by three exegetical works preserved in the Khuddaka Nikāya: the Paṭisambhidāmagga, the Nettipakaraṇa and the Peṭakopadesa.

Below I shall append a collection of passages from these three texts which I hope will suffice to show that this is not in fact the case. I trust it will be clear from these that not only is it not “impossible” to translate anicca as “impermanent” and anattā as “not-self” (or else with synonyms of these), but that it really isn’t feasible to translate them in any other way.

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Re: ‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

Post by Dhammanando » Fri Aug 31, 2018 11:48 pm

Formal definitions of anicca and aniccānupassanā

Tattha katamo aniccaṭṭho? Pīḷanaṭṭho aniccaṭṭho pabhaṅgaṭṭho sampāpanaṭṭho vivekaṭṭho aniccaṭṭho, ayaṃ aniccaṭṭho.

Herein, what is the meaning of anicca? The meaning of pressure is the meaning of anicca; the meaning of not nicca; the meaning of ephemeral; the meaning of causing to terminate; the meaning of seclusion [from nicca] is the meaning of anicca. This is the meaning of anicca.
(Peṭakopadesa 140)

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Aniccato ti, aniccānupassanā ... palokato ti, aniccānupassanā ... calato ti, aniccānupassanā ... pabhaṅguto ti, aniccānupassanā ... addhuvato ti aniccānupassanā ... vipariṇāmadhammato ti, aniccānupassanā ... vibhavato ti, aniccānupassanā ... saṅkhatatoti, aniccānupassanā ... maraṇadhammato ti, aniccānupassanā.

“Seeing the five aggregates as ‘anicca’ is contemplation of anicca.
“Seeing ... as ‘disintegrating’ is contemplation of anicca.
“Seeing ... as ‘fickle’ is contemplation of anicca.
“Seeing ... as ‘perishable’ is contemplation of anicca.
“Seeing ... as ‘unenduring’ is contemplation of anicca.
“Seeing ... as ‘subject to change’ is contemplation of anicca.
“Seeing ... as ‘due to be annihilated’ is contemplation of anicca.
“Seeing ... as ‘conditioned’ is contemplation of anicca.
“Seeing ... as ‘subject to death’ is contemplation of anicca.
(Paṭisambhidāmagga ii. 241f)

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Re: ‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

Post by Dhammanando » Fri Aug 31, 2018 11:51 pm

Anicca and arising-and-passing-away

Aniccan ti kiṃ aniccaṃ? Pañcakkhandhā aniccā. Kenaṭṭhena aniccā? Uppādavayaṭṭhena aniccā.

“‘Anicca’ — What is anicca? The five aggregates are anicca.”
“In what sense are they anicca?”
“They are anicca in the sense of arising and passing away.”
(Paṭisambhidāmagga i. 192)

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Tattha katamā aniccasaññā? ‘Sabbe saṅkhārā uppādavayadhammino’ ti ca yā saññā sañjānanā vavatthapanā uggāho, ayaṃ aniccasaññā. Tassā ko nissando? Aniccasaññāya bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya aṭṭhasu lokadhammesu cittaṃ nānusandhati na sandhati na saṇṭhahati, upekkhā vā paṭikkūlatā vā saṇṭhahati, ayamassā nissando.

“Herein, what is perception of anicca?”
“Any perception, perceiving, defining or apprehending that ‘All dhammas are of the nature to arise and pass away’, this is perception of anicca.”
“What is its outcome?”
“When perception of anicca is developed and made much of, then the eight worldly dhammas [gain, loss, fame, disrepute, praise, blame, pleasure and pain] do not keep linking up with, connecting with or moulding the mind; [rather] it is either equanimity or revulsion that moulds it. This is its outcome”
(Peṭakopadesa 126)

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Saṅkhatalakkhaṇānaṃ dhammānaṃ samanupassanalakkhaṇā aniccasaññā, tassā uppādavayā padaṭṭhānaṃ.

“Perception of anicca has the characteristic of discerning dhammas that have the characteristic of being conditioned. Its footing is arising and passing away.”
(Nettippakaraṇa 27-8)

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Saṅkhatānaṃ dhammānaṃ vināsaggahaṇalakkhaṇā aniccasaññā, tassā udayabbayo padaṭṭhānaṃ.

“Perception of anicca has the characteristic of apprehending the destruction of conditioned dhammas. Its footing is arising-and-passing away.”
(Peṭakopadesa 127)

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Re: ‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

Post by Dhammanando » Fri Aug 31, 2018 11:53 pm

Anicca = destruction; anattā = coreless or empty

Kathaṃ ‘sabbe saṅkhārā aniccā’ ti sotāvadhānaṃ, taṃpajānanā paññā sutamaye ñāṇaṃ?
‘Rūpaṃ aniccaṃ khayaṭṭhenā’ ti ... sotāvadhānaṃ.


“How is it that understanding of applying the ear thus: ‘All saṅkhāras are anicca’ is knowledge consisting in what has been heard?”
“The ear is applied thus: Materiality is anicca in the sense of destruction.”

(Repeat for the other aggregates and all the 201 knowable dhammas)
(Paṭisambhidāmagga i. 37)

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Kathaṃ vedanāya upaṭṭhānaṃ viditaṃ hoti? Aniccato manasikaroto khayatupaṭṭhānaṃ viditaṃ hoti ... anattato manasikaroto suññatupaṭṭhānaṃ viditaṃ hoti. Evaṃ vedanāya upaṭṭhānaṃ viditaṃ hoti.

“How is the appearance of feeling recognized? When he gives attention [to feeling] as anicca, the appearance as destruction is recognized; ... when he gives it attention as not attā the appearance as emptiness is recognized. This is how the appearance of feeling is recognized.”
(Paṭisambhidāmagga i. 178)

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Aniccato manasikaroto kathaṃ saṅkhārā upaṭṭhanti? ... Anattato manasikaroto kathaṃ saṅkhārā upaṭṭhanti? Aniccato manasikaroto khayato saṅkhārā upaṭṭhanti ... anattato manasikaroto suññato saṅkhārā upaṭṭhanti.

“When he gives attention to saṅkhāras as anicca, how do they appear to him? ... When he gives attention to saṅkhāras as not attā, how do they appear to him?”

“When he gives attention to formations as anicca, they appear to him as destruction ... When he gives attention to formations as not attā, they appear as empty.”
(Paṭisambhidāmagga ii. 48)

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Kathaṃ ‘sabbe dhammā anattā’ ti sotāvadhānaṃ, taṃpajānanā paññā sutamaye ñāṇaṃ?
‘Rūpaṃ anattā asārakaṭṭhenā’ ti sotāvadhānaṃ.


“How is it that understanding of applying the ear thus: ‘All dhammas are not attā’ is knowledge consisting in what has been heard?”
“The ear is applied thus: Materiality is not attā in the sense of lacking any core.”

(Repeat for the other aggregates and all the 201 knowable dhammas)
(Paṭisambhidāmagga i. 37)

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Rūpaṃ atītānāgatapaccuppannaṃ aniccaṃ khayaṭṭhena ... anattā asārakaṭṭhenāti tulayitvā tīrayitvā vibhāvayitvā vibhūtaṃ katvā rūpanirodhe nibbāne khippaṃ javatīti: javanapaññā.

“Having calculated and judged and clarified and made clear that past, future and presently-arisen materiality is anicca in the sense of destruction ... and not attā in the sense of lacking any core, it soon gives the impulse to the cessation of materiality, Nibbāna, thus it is called ‘impulsive understanding’.”
(Paṭisambhidāmagga ii. 200)

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Re: ‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

Post by Dhammanando » Fri Aug 31, 2018 11:56 pm

A formal definition of anattā

Tattha katamo anattaṭṭho? Anissariyaṭṭho anattaṭṭho, avasavattanaṭṭho, akāmakāriṭṭho parividaṭṭho, ayaṃ anattaṭṭhoti.

“Herein, what is the meaning of anattā?”
“The meaning of unamenability to lordship-rule is the meaning of anattā. The meaning of unsusceptibility to the wielding of power, the meaning of unsusceptibility to be done with as one wishes, the meaning of being secluded from identification. This is the meaning of anattā.”
(Peṭakopadesa 140)

This is Ñāṇamoli’s rather stilted rendering. The Thai one published by the Bhumibalo Bhikkhu Foundation is much simpler:

.
Petako.jpg
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“The meaning of having no boss, the meaning of having no self, the meaning of not being subject to control, the meaning of [dhammas] not acting according to one’s wishes, the meaning that nothing can penetrate [them]. This is the meaning of anattā.”

What is anattā is ‘other’, etc.

Paratoti, anattānupassanā .. rittatoti, anattānupassanā ... tucchatoti, anattānupassanā, suññatoti, anattānupassanā, anattatoti, anattānupassanā ... asārakatoti, anattānupassanā.

“Seeing the five aggregates as ‘other’ is contemplation of not-attā.
“Seeing ... as ‘hollow’ is contemplation of not-attā.
“Seeing ... as ‘vain’ is contemplation of not-attā.
“Seeing ... as ‘empty’ is contemplation of not-attā.
“Seeing ... as ‘not attā’ is contemplation of not-attā.
“Seeing ... as ‘lacking any core’ is contemplation of not-attā.
(Paṭisambhidāmagga ii. 241f)

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Re: ‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

Post by Dhammanando » Fri Aug 31, 2018 11:59 pm

Miscellaneous quotes on anattā


Yā ca anattānupassanā yā ca suññatānupassanā, ime dhammā nānatthā ceva nānābyañjanā ca, udāhu ekatthā, byañjanameva nānanti? Yā ca anattānupassanā yā ca suññatānupassanā, ime dhammā ekatthā, byañjanameva nānaṃ.

“Contemplation of not-attā, and contemplation of emptiness — are these dhammas different in meaning and different in phrasing, or are they one in meaning and only the phrasing is different?
“Contemplation of not-attā, and contemplation of emptiness — these dhammas are one in meaning and only the phrasing is different.”
(Paṭisambhidāmagga ii. 63)

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Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharanto ‘anattani attā’ ti vipallāsaṃ pajahati ... attavādupādānena ca anupādāno bhavati.

“One who dwells contemplating dhammas as dhammas abandons the
hallucination that there is attā in the not-attā, ... and with regard to clinging to self-doctrines he becomes one who is free of clinging.”
(Nettippakaraṇa 84)

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Cattārome, bhikkhave, saññāvipallāsā cittavipallāsā diṭṭhivipallāsā. Katame cattāro? ... Anattani, bhikkhave, attāti saññāvipallāso cittavipallāso diṭṭhivipallāso.

“Bhikkhus, there are these four hallucinations of perception, hallucinations of mind, hallucinations of view. What four? [...] Seeing attā in what is not attā is an hallucination of perception, an hallucination of mind, an hallucination of view.”
(Paṭisambhidāmagga ii. 80)

[Here Sāriputta is quoting the Buddha’s words in the Vipallāsasutta (AN. ii. 52). The grammar of the passage is sufficient to show the error of equating attā and anattā with attha and anattha. The word anattani can only be anattā in the locative singular case. Anattha in this sentence would need to take the form anatthasmiṃ, anatthamhi or anatthe.]

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Paṭhame vipallāse ṭhito kāme upādiyati, idaṃ vuccati kāmupādānaṃ.
Dutiye vipallāse ṭhito anāgataṃ bhavaṃ upādiyati, idaṃ vuccati bhavupādānaṃ.
Tatiye vipallāse ṭhito saṃsārābhinandiniṃ diṭṭhiṃ upādiyati, idaṃ vuccati diṭṭhupādānaṃ.
Catutthe vipallāse ṭhito attānaṃ kappiyaṃ upādiyati, idaṃ vuccati attavādupādānaṃ.


“Established in the first hallucination [which perceives attractiveness in what is unattractive] one clings to sensual desires; this is called clinging to sensuality.
“Established in the second hallucination [which perceives sukha in what is dukkha] one clings to future existence: this is called clinging to existence.
“Established in the third hallucination [which perceives nicca in what is anicca] one clings to the view that delights in saṃsāric continuance; this is called clinging to views.
“Established in the fourth hallucination [which perceives attā in what is not-attā] one clings to that which one has supposed to be an attā; this is called clinging to self-doctrines.”
(Nettippakaraṇa 115f)

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Tattha katamā anattasaññā? ‘Sabbesu dhammesu anattā’ ti yā saññā sañjānanā vavatthapanā uggāho, ayaṃ anattasaññā. Tassā ko nissando? Anattasaññāya bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya ahaṅkāro cittaṃ nānusandhati na sandhati, mamaṅkāro na saṇṭhahati, upekkhā vā paṭikkūlatā vā saṇṭhahati, ayamassā nissando.

“Herein, what is perception of anattā?”
“Any perception, perceiving, defining or apprehending that ‘All dhammas are anattā’, this is perception of anattā.”
“What is its outcome?”
“When perception of anattā is developed and made much of, then ‘I’-making does not keep linking up with, connecting with or moulding the mind; [rather] it is either equanimity or revulsion that moulds it. This is its outcome”
(Peṭakopadesa 126)

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Khandhadhātu-āyatanesu attādhimuttassa nānādhātu-anekadhātu-vinibbhogam-apaccavekkhato anattasaññā na upaṭṭhāti.

“Perception of anattā does not become established in one who, believing in an attā in the aggregates or elements or bases, does not recollect the resolution into the different and plural elements.”
(Peṭakopadesa 129)

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Tattha niccasaññādhimuttassa aparāparacittapavattiyaṃ santatiṃ paṇāmento apaccavekkhato aniccasaññā na upaṭṭhāti.

“Herein, the perception of anicca does not become established in one who believes in the perception of nicca because of non-reviewing of the process of mental alteration in the [mental] continuum.”
(Peṭakopadesa 128)

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Re: ‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

Post by SarathW » Sat Sep 01, 2018 2:13 am

Thank you Bhante.
Could you post something similar above to explain Dukkha?
:anjali:
“As the lamp consumes oil, the path realises Nibbana”


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Re: ‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

Post by mikenz66 » Sat Sep 01, 2018 4:18 am

Thank you Bhante,
Dhammanando wrote:
Fri Aug 31, 2018 11:56 pm
The Thai one published by the Bhumibalo Bhikkhu Foundation is much simpler:
...
“The meaning of having no boss, the meaning of having no self, the meaning of not being subject to control, the meaning of [dhammas] not acting according to one’s wishes, the meaning that nothing can penetrate [them]. This is the meaning of anattā.”
One of the Thai monks in my local monastery uses the "no control" phrase...

:heart:
Mike

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Re: ‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

Post by SarathW » Sat Sep 01, 2018 4:23 am

"no control"
My understanding is "no control but no controller"
“As the lamp consumes oil, the path realises Nibbana”

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Re: ‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

Post by boundless » Sat Sep 01, 2018 9:59 am

Thank you very much, Bhante.

:anjali:

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Re: ‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

Post by Dhammanando » Sat Sep 01, 2018 12:11 pm

SarathW wrote:
Sat Sep 01, 2018 2:13 am
Could you post something similar above to explain Dukkha?
I will later, though it may take me a while as there's roughly seven times as much material on dukkha in these three texts as there is on anicca and anattā. The Peṭakopadesa and the Netti in particular are very rich in dukkha-related passages, for the underlying premise of these hermeneutics texts is that every word the Buddha ever uttered is in some way related to one or another, or several, of the four nobletruths; the principal task of a commentator is that of bringing out this relevance.

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Re: ‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

Post by SarathW » Sat Sep 01, 2018 12:39 pm

Thank you, Bhante.
I always have a difficulty reconciling Dukkha to Anicca and Anatta.
It is easy to understand that if something is Anicca it is anatta.
It is not easy to reconcile how Anicca and Anatta related to Dukkha.
Another point is if Nibbana is Anatta why it is not Anicca and Dukkha.
It appears to me Anicca , Dukkha and Anatta are applicable to mundane consciousness not the supramundane or Rupa.

viewtopic.php?f=13&t=32658&hilit=
“As the lamp consumes oil, the path realises Nibbana”

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Re: ‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

Post by James Tan » Sat Sep 01, 2018 3:04 pm

SarathW wrote:
Sat Sep 01, 2018 12:39 pm
Thank you, Bhante.
I always have a difficulty reconciling Dukkha to Anicca and Anatta.
It is easy to understand that if something is Anicca it is anatta.
It is not easy to reconcile how Anicca and Anatta related to Dukkha.
Another point is if Nibbana is Anatta why it is not Anicca and Dukkha.
It appears to me Anicca , Dukkha and Anatta are applicable to mundane consciousness not the supramundane or Rupa.

viewtopic.php?f=13&t=32658&hilit=
Isn't that once you realise the anicca and anatta , you hold on to nothing , if you do, you won't escape inevitable outcome which is Not getting according to what one wants and hence suffer ?
:reading:

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Re: ‘Anicca’ and ‘anattā’ in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, Nettippakaraṇa and Peṭakopadesa

Post by arunam » Sun Sep 02, 2018 10:48 am

Dhammanando wrote:
Fri Aug 31, 2018 11:53 pm

(Repeat for the other aggregates and all the 201 knowable dhammas)
(Paṭisambhidāmagga i. 37)
What is the pali term for knowable dhammas? :anjali:
A path is made by walking on it

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