Page 1 of 1

Abhidhamma View : Purification of Virtue

Posted: Tue Sep 11, 2012 3:50 pm
by yawares
Dear Members,

:candle: Abhidhamma View : Purification of Virtue :candle:
[Presented by Dr.Tep Sastri @SariputtaDhamma/JTN/Mult]

CMA IX, p. 347-348:

Purification of virtue consists of the four kinds of purified virtue, namely: 1) virtue regarding restraint according to the Paatimokha; 2) virtue regarding restraint of the sense faculties; 3) virtue consisting in purity of livelihood; and 4) virtue connected with the use of the requisites.

These four kinds of purified virtue are explained with reference to the life of a bhikkhu, a Buddhist monk.

Virtue regarding restraint according to the Paatimokha: the Paatimokha is the code of fundamental disciplinaryrules biding upon a Buddhist monk. This code consists of 227 rules of varying degrees of gravity. Perfect adherence to the rules laid down in the Paatimokha is called "virtue regarding restraint according to the Paatimokha".

Virtue regarding restraint of the sense faculties: means the exercise of mindfulness in one's encounter with sense objects, not allowing the mind to come under the sway of attraction towards pleasant objects and repulsion towards unpleasant objects.

Virtue consisting in purity of livelihood: deals with the manner in which a bhikkhu acquires the necessities of life. He should not acquire his requisites in a manner unbecoming for a monk, who is dedicated in purity and honesty.

Virtue connected with the use of the requisites: means that the bhikkhu should use the four requisites --robes, almsfood, lodging, and medicines-- after reflecting upon their proper purpose.

:heart: Love Buddha's dhamma,

Re: Abhidhamma View : Purification of Virtue

Posted: Wed Sep 12, 2012 3:23 am
by Hanzze
In addition from the "Bodhipakkhiya Dipani by Ledi Sayadaw"
Heritage of the Sasana P 378

In the cases of those persons whose parami are yet immature, the
Buddha foresaw that the opportunity afforded them of practising the
works consisting of acquiring the pariyatti, performing dana, observing
sila, and giving paccayanuggaha (assistance in kind) extensively, would
secure for them escape from the apaya loka in the next birth, and ena-
ble them to obtain release from worldly ills during the next Buddha
Sasana. This is another reason.

It may be argued here that if what has been said above is true, it
would amount to the Buddha himself having contrived to submerge beings
and cast them adrift in amisa heritage. In this particular, it may be
pointed out that the Buddha prescribed and left behind the practice of
paccavekkhana-suddhi (purity of contemplation or purity of review), such
as 'patisafikhayoniso civaram patisevati', which should be observed and
practised with proper attention and care, in order that the servants and
the caretakers of the pariyatti sasanfi who have to associate themselves
unavoidably with paccayamisa and lokamisa may not be overwhelmed
and submerged in amisa tanha. Hence, if such persons ride the ship
which consists of the wisdom arising out of paccayasannissita sila cetana
according to the prescription in paccavekkhana sudd hi that is free from
the association of two kinds of amisa tanha, they cannot become submer-
ged and be adrift in the ocean of amisa although they are obliged to
live in association with amisa tanha.

The meanings of the expressions 'submerged' and 'adrift' are as fol-
lows: The non-appearance of adinava-nana (awareness of blemishes) in
the three amisa of paccayamisa, lokamisa, vattamisa, is what is meant
by 'submerged.' To be non-aware of blemishes for a lengthy period, and
to derive joy and pleasure in the three amisa throughout the whole of
life, is what is meant by 'adrift'. Hence, in order to prevent being so
'submerged' and 'adrift', the Buddha said in the Dhammapada:

Tin nam annatararh yamarh
patijaggeyya pandito.

—Dhammapada, verse 157.

(The wise man should purify himself during one of the three periods
of life.)

This means that if one is 'submerged' and be 'adrift' in the first period
of life, one should attempt to purify oneself during the second period.
If, however, one continues to remain 'submerged' and 'adrift' during the
second period of life, one should attempt to purify oneself in the third
period .

Here, 'purifying oneself means establishing oneself in the bodhipak-
khiya-dbamma after ridding oneself of the attachments to amisa herita-
ges. It means establishing oneself well in the four ariyavamsa dhamma
(practices of the noble family of ariya), which are:

Civarasantosa— being easily contented in robes
Pindapatasantosa— being easily contented in alms-food
Senasanasantosa— being easily contented in dwelling place
Bhavanarama— deriving joy in meditation.

The Buddha said that if one remains 'submerged' and 'adrift' within
the amisa heritages during the whole of the three periods of life, one
will be cast into the apaya loka. Thus in the Dhammapada, he said:

Ayasava malam samutthaya,
tadutlhnya tameva khadati.
evam atidhonacarinarh,
tani kammani nayaati duggatirh.

—Dhammapada, verse 240.

(Just as rust springs from iron and eats away that self-same iron, the
deeds arising out of amisa tanha of a person who lives without reflection
lead him to the apaya loka.)

This discourse 5 * was delivered by the Buddha in connection with a
bhikkhu who died in the Jetavana Monastery, and who was reborn as a
louse in his erstwhile bhikkhu's robes, because he harboured an attach-
ment to those robes just before he died. If the attachment to a set of
robes can cast one in the apaya loka, what more need be said on greater
attachments ?

The robes were received as a share from saiighika property (property
belonging to the order of the Sangha), and hence were dhammika pro-
perty (righteous or lawful property). The bhikkhu in question was also
one who scrupulously observed the 227 sikkha of the Vinaya. Thus it
may be said that a set of lawful robes cast a bhikkhu endowed with the
227 sikkha into the apaya loka. What more need be said about pro-
perties acquired with lust and greed by ordinary layfolk endowed with
only five sikkha? It is thus that one should contemplate and acquire
agitation (sarhvega) .9 I shall now give an illustration.

There was a wealthy man who possessed many crores worth of silver,
many crores worth of gold, and many crores worth of pearls. In order
that these properties might not be lost during bad times, he buried the
bulk of them in the ground, and kept only sixty-thousand worth of
money, rice, paddy, wearing apparel, and ornaments for immediate and
ready use.

This wealthy man had six sons. On his death, the six heirs divided
the properties among themselves in six equal shares. The properties
buried beneath the earth were also similarly allocated. These buried
properties could be secured by the heirs only if the owners personally
dug them out the ground.

One of the sons was full of greed. He was not content with the pro-
perty he could immediately use. He was satiated with the desire for
the buried property and could not bear to wait long in order to get it.
He therefore exerted himself and dug up Ihe property, thus becoming a
wealthy man.

One of the sons was full of energy. He did not look on the prospect
of having to exert himself for days and months as burdensome. He
therefore put forth effort and applied himself to the work of unearthing
the buried treasure, thus becoming a wealthy man.

One of the sons was strong in his attachment. From the moment he
received the heritage, his mind ways always on the property. Sleep and
food were of no consequence, so greatly was his mind attached to the pro-
perty. He thus put forth effort and dug up the buried property, becom-
ing a wealthy man.

One of the sons was clever and ingenious. He contrived to construct
machinery and dug up the buried property, thus becoming a wealthy

One of the sons lacked greed. He imagined himself to be well-off with
even ten thousand worth of property. He had no desire to acquire the
buried property. He was satisfied with the property that he received for
his immediate use.

One of the sons was a spendthrift. He squandered all the property,
not even leaving the price of a spade for the exhumation of the buried
property. He sank in to bad ways and was eventually banished from his
native place.

In this illustration, the Buddha resembles the wealthy father. Sila-vi-
suddhi and the pariyatti dhamma resemble the treasure available for
immediate use. Jhana and abhinna, which constitute citta-visuddhi, resem-
ble the buried silver treasure. The four lokiya pafina-visuddhi, such
as ditthivisuddhi, resemble the buried gold treasure. The lokuttara-riana-
dassana-visuddhi resembles the buried pearl treasure. The layfolk and
bhikkhus of the Buddha Sasana resemble the six heirs.

Those persons within the Sasana who are filled with the iddhipada of
chanda (desire) resemble the first son who was filled with greed. Persons
filled with the iddhipada of chanda are not satisfied with the mere acqui-
sition of sila-visuddhi and the pariyatti dhamma. They do not think
that by such acquisition they have encountered the Buddha Sasana, or
that they have become heirs of the Sasana. They nurture great desire
for attaining the higher visuddhi and will not rest until they are

Those persons who possess the iddhipada of viriya (effort) resemble
the second son who was full of effort. Such persons are happy and easy
in mind only when they are engaged in the attempt to acquire the higher
achievements which they do not as yet possess.

Those persons who possess the iddhipada of citta (attachment) resem-
ble the third son who possessed strong attachment. Whenever such per-
sons come to know of work productive of great benefits, they invoke
great attachment for it, and their minds do not wander to any other

Those persons who possess iddhipada of panna (wisdom) resemble the
fourth son who was clever and ingenious. Such persons attain happiness
and ease of mind only when they are engaged in the attempt to acquire
great knowledge that is difficult of acquisition, deep, and productive of
great benefits.

Those persons who do not possess any of the iddhipada, who possess
only inferior chanda, viriya, citta, and panna, resemble the fifth son who
was easily satisfied with the unburied property. Such persons who lack
saddha and chanda do not even possess the idea that the higher attain-
ments of the visuddhi are the heritages which they can acquire in this
very life. Because they lack viriya, they are reluctant to put forth effort
that requires the encountering of privations. They are liable to reject
such effort as impossible. Because they are weak in their volitions, their
minds are not fixed on such kinds of work. They change their minds
whenever they listen to various theories and expositions. Because they
lack knowledge and wisdom, they reject such work as beyond their
capabilities. It is because the Buddha had such persons in view that he

Chandiddhipadam bhaveti
Viriyiddhipadam bhaveti
Cittiddhipadam bhaveti
Vimamsiddhipadam bhaveti.

In these words the Buddha urged all beings to strengthen their weak
iddhipada, such as chanda, etc. Then only can new desires and new
thoughts arise.

In the Buddha Sasana, layfolk and bhikkhus who are defective in their
moral conduct resemble the sixth son. Among layfolk, those persons
who are defective in the establishment of the Tr-sarana, and the nicca-
sila of parica-sila and ajivatthamaka-sila, do not possess the qualities of
an upasaka or an upasika, who only are the heirs of the Sasana. Among
bhikkhus and samaneras, those who commit the parajika 10 offences do
not possess the qualities of a good bhikkhu or a good samanera, who
only are the heirs of the Sasana. If layfolk vow that they would keep
the pafica-sila or the ajivatthamaka-sila from today, they can immediate-
ly become upasakas and upasikas who are heirs of the Sasana.

This illustration shows how of the many persons who are truly in the
line of heritage of the one father (the Buddha), only those who possess
one or other of the four iddhipada as a foundation can enjoy the full bene-
fits of the heritages. Persons who do not possess one or other of the
four iddhipada get the opportunity to enjoy only some of the superficial
benefits of the heritages. They do not get the opportunity to enjoy the
real essence of the heritages. Some persons do not get the opportunity
of enjoying even the superficial benefits because they squander their her-
itages and thus become severed from the Buddha's and the Sasana's
heritages. ....

Re: Abhidhamma View : Purification of Virtue

Posted: Thu Sep 13, 2012 2:21 am
by yawares
Dear Hanzze,
I truly appreciate your wonderful dhammapada verses/stories
. :anjali:
yawares :thumbsup: