The conclusions are those of highly trained archeologists using impeccable standards and subject to peer review over decades. I trust that they know what they're talking about.poto wrote: You think that since archeologists didn't find evidence of violence for certain periods of time, that somehow these eras were devoid of violence?
IMHO, humans are born as ignorant beings. That ignorance gives rise to suffering and violence. Through the Dhamma, we are able to overcome our ignorance and subdue those violent impulses.
If Buddhist ideology is inconsistent with modern research data, then it us up to Buddhism and it's believers to disprove the evidence. As you explore this subject, it may be helpful to set aside your belief that all human civilizations have been violent because humans are violent by nature and because only the Dharma prevents violence. The notion of "human nature" is a myth used to justify any number of unskillful and destructive habits. It is conditions that create violence...external and internal. Buddhists aren't the only people in the history of civilization that have learned to create the conditions that give rise to non-violence.
As for proof, I've learned about this in various settings and by reading over the last 30 years. If you want proof, you'll need to do research.
Also, you'll find that the field of anthropology will have even more evidence of (particularly autochthonous ) cultures that have had and do have an absence of violence and the infrastructures of violence.