Eighty Minor Marks in Pāli literature

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Wizard in the Forest
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Eighty Minor Marks in Pāli literature

Post by Wizard in the Forest »

I found in the Āpadana and the Milinda Pañha mention of the Eighty Minor Marks of the Buddha and found a Sanskrit version of the Eighty Marks in the Āgamas but what are the Eighty Secondary Characteristics of the Buddha in Pāli?
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Volo
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Re: Eighty Minor Marks in Pāli literature

Post by Volo »

From The Great Chronicles of the Buddha by Mingun Sayadaw p. 242-245. (Diacritic marks unfortunately got lost during copy-paste).
The Eighty Minor Characteristics
The Bodhisatta, a great man, is also endowed with eighty minor characteristics called asÊti
anuvyaÒjana, which accompany the major ones. These eighty minor marks will now be
briefly mentioned, as appear in the JinÈla~kÈra Tika and other texts.
(1) Closely knitted fingers and toes with no intervening gaps (cit'angulita).
(2) Fingers and toes tapering gradually from the base to the tips (anupubb'angulita).
(3) Round fingers and toes (vaÔÔ'angulita).
(These are the three characteristics concerning the fingers and toes.)
(4) Red fingernails and toenails (tamba nakhatÈ).
(5) Tall, pointed and prominent fingernails and toenails (tunga nakhatÈ).
(6) Neat and smooth fingernails and toenails (siniddha nakhatÈ).
(These are three characteristics concerning the fingernails and toenails).
(7) Neither receding nor protruding ankles, i.e. inconspicuous ankles (nig|Äha
gopphakatÈ). (Others' ankles are bulging and conspicuous.)
(8) Evenness of the tips of all ten toes (sama pÈdatÈ).
(This is the one characteristic concerning the toes.)
(9) Manner of walking gracefully like an elephant king (gajasamÈn'akkamatÈ).
(10) Manner of walking gracefully like a lion king (sÊhasamÈn'akkamatÈ).
(11) Manner of walking gracefully like a haÑsa king (haÑsasamÈn'akkamatÈ).
(12) Manner of walking gracefully like a bull king (usabhasamÈn’akkamatÈ).
(13) Manner of walking clockwise (dakkhiÓÈtvaÔÔa gatitÈ).
(These are the five characteristics concerning the manner of walking.)
(14) Round knees that are beautiful on all sides (samantato cÈrujaÓÓu maÓÉalatÈ).
(This is the one characteristic concerning the knees.)
(15) Well developed male organ (paripuÓÓa purisavyaÒjanatÈ.)
(This is the one characteristic of the male genitalia.)
(16) Navel with uninterrupted lines (acchidda nÈbhitÈ.)
(17) Deep navel (gambhÊra nÈbhitÈ).
(18) Navel with a right turning ringlet (dakkhiÓÈvatta nÈbhitÈ).
(These are the three characteristics concerning the navel.)
(19) Thighs and arms like an elephant's trunk (dviradakara sadisa-|rubhujatÈ).
(This is the one characteristic concerning the thighs and arms.)
(20) Well proportionate body (suvibhatta gattatÈ). (By this is meant flawless frame.)
(21) Gradually rising body (anupubba gattatÈ). (By this is meant agreeably formed upper
and lower parts of the body.)
(22) Fine body (mattha gattatÈ).
(23) Neither lean nor plump body (anussann Ènanussanna sabbagattatÈ).
(24) Wrinkle-free body (alÊna gattatÈ).
(25) Body free of moles, freckles, etc. (tilakÈdivirahita gattatÈ).
(26) Regularly lustrous body (anupubba rucira gattatÈ).
(27) Particularly clean body (suvisuddha gattatÈ).
(More characteristics concerning the body will follow later on.)
(28) Physical strength equal to that of one thousand crores of Kalavaka elephants
(koÔisahassa hatthibala dhÈraÓatÈ).
(This is the only characteristic concerning the physical strength.)
(29) Prominent nose like a golden goad (tunga nÈsatÈ).
(This is the only characteristic concerning the nose.)
(30) Dark red gums (suratta dvijamaÑsatÈ). (In the Samantacakkhu DÊpanÊ occurs
rattadvijamukhatÈ, red lips.)
(This is the only characteristic concerning the gums.)
(31) Clean teeth (suddha dantatÈ).
(32) Neat and smooth glossy teeth (siniddha dantatÈ).
(Two characteristics concerning the teeth.)
(33) Pure faculties of sense, such as eyes, etc. (visuddh'indriyatÈ).
(This is the only characteristic concerning the sense-faculties of eyes, ears, nose,
tongue, and body.)
(34) Round canine teeth (vaÔÔa dÈÔhatÈ).
(This is the only characteristic concerning the canine teeth.)
(35) Red lips (ratt'oÔÔhatÈ).
(This is the only characteristic concerning the lips.)
(36) Long mouth-cavity (Èyata vadÈnatÈ).
(This is the only characteristic concerning the mouth.)
(37) Deep lines on the palms (gambhÊra pÈÓilekhatÈ).
(38) Long lines on the palms (Èyata lekhatÈ).
(39) Straight lines on the palms (uju lekhatÈ).
(40) Beautifully formed lines on the palms (surucira-saÓÔhÈna lekhatÈ).
(41) Halo spreading around the body in a circle (parimaÓÉala kÈyappabhÈtvantatÈ).
(42) Full cheeks (paripuÓÓa kapolatÈ).
(This is the only characteristic concerning the cheeks.)
(43) Long and broad eyes (ÈyatavisÈla nettatÈ).
(44) Very clear eyes with five kinds of colour (paÒca pasÈdavanta nettatÈ).
(Two characteristics concerning the eyes.)
(45) Eyelashes with their tips curling upwards (kuÒjitagga bhamukatÈ).
(This is the only characteristic concerning the eyelashes.)
(46) Soft, thin and red tongue (mudu tanuka ratta jivhatÈ). (The Samantacakkhu DÊpanÊ,
Volume I, says that by this characteristic should be taken three things: softness,
thinness and redness, while other teachers wish to take only two: softness and
thinness. Here in this book the characteristic is mentioned as one in accordance with
the JinÈla~kÈra Tika.)
(This is the only characteristic concerning the tongue.)
(47) Long and beautiful ears (Èyata-rucira kaÓÓatÈ). (In this connection too, two things
are taken by others.)
(This is the only characteristic concerning the ears.)
(48) Varicosity-free vein (niggaÓÔhi siratÈ). (There are no varicose veins.)
(49) Neither receding nor protruding veins (i.e. inconspicuous veins) (nigg|Äa siratÈ).
(Two characteristic concerning the veins.)
(50) Round elegant head like a circular umbrella (vatta-chattanibha cÈru sÊsatÈ).
(This is the only characteristic concerning the head.)
(51) Long, broad and graceful forehead (Èyata-puthu nalÈÔa sobhatÈ).
(This is the only characteristic concerning the forehead.)
(52) Natural and beautiful eyebrows that need not be groomed (susaÓÔhÈna bhamukatÈ).
(53) Soft eyebrows (saÓha bhamukatÈ).
(54) Eyebrows in regular order (anuloma bhamukatÈ).
(55) Large eyebrows (mahÈnta bhamukatÈ).
(56) Long eyebrows (Èyata bhamukatÈ).
(Five characteristics concerning the eyebrows.)
(57) Supple body (sukumÈla gattatÈ).
(58) Very relaxed body (ativiya-somma gattatÈ).
(59) Very bright body (ativiya-ujjalita gattatÈ).
(60) Dirt-free body (absence of body secretion) (vimala gattatÈ).
(61) Non-sticky body (the body skin always looks fresh) (komala gattatÈ).
(62) Neat and handsome body (siniddha gattatÈ).
(63) Fragrant body (sugandha tanutÈ).
(Fifteen characteristics concerning the body including the above eight from No.20 to
No. 27.)
(64) Body hairs of equal length (no difference in length (sama lomatÈ).
(65) Non-sticky hairs (komala lomatÈ).
(66) Every body hair coiling clockwise (dakkhiÓÈvaÔÔa lomatÈ).
(67) Blue body hairs like the colour of broken stones of collyrium (bhinn'aÒjana-sadisa-
nÊla lomatÈ). (The Samantacakkhu DÊpanÊ says that it is the blue hair on the head
that has the splendour of a golden mountain.)
(68) Round body hairs (vaÔÔa lomatÈ).
(69) Smooth body hairs (siniddha lomatÈ).
(Six characteristics concerning the hairs of the body.)
(70) Very subtle inhaling and exhaling breath (atisukhuma-assÈsapassÈsa dhÈraÓatÈ).
(This is the only characteristic concerning the respiration.)
(71) Fragrant mouth (sugandha mukhatÈ).
(This is the only characteristic concerning the mouth.)
(72) Fragrant top of the head (sugandha muddhanatÈ).
(This is the only characteristic concerning the top of the head.)
(73) Jet-black hair (sunÊla kesatÈ).
(74) Hair curling clockwise (dakkhiÓÈvaÔÔa kesatÈ).
(75) Naturally well groomed hair (susaÓÔhÈna kesatÈ).
(76) Neat and sort hair (siniddha kesatÈ saÓha kesatÈ).
(77) Untangled hair (aluÄita kesatÈ).
(78) Hair of equal length (sama kesatÈ). (Other people have long and short hair mixed.
This is not so in the case of the Bodhisatta.)
(79) Non-sticky hair (komala kesatÈ).
(Seven characteristics concerning the hair.)
(80) Aggregate of luminous rays called ketumÈlÈ halo which shines forth from the top of
the head. The Bodhisatta is marvellous by means of the ketumÈlÈ halo
(ketumÈlÈratana vicittatÈ).
(This is the only characteristic concerning the halo.)
The Bodhisatta possesses the above eighty minor characteristics. (The enumeration is
made here in accordance with that contained in the JinÈla~kÈra Tika.)
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Dhammanando
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Re: Eighty Minor Marks in Pāli literature

Post by Dhammanando »

Here's the Milinda-ṭīkā's list, which seems to be in a different order from the sayadaw's.

Dhammatthavinicchaya
“Keep to your own pastures, bhikkhus, walk in the haunts where your fathers roamed.
If ye thus walk in them, Māra will find no lodgement, Māra will find no foothold.”
— Cakkavattisīhanāda Sutta
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Volo
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Re: Eighty Minor Marks in Pāli literature

Post by Volo »

Dhammanando wrote: Wed May 13, 2020 1:04 pm Here's the Milinda-ṭīkā's list, which seems to be in a different order from the sayadaw's.

Dhammatthavinicchaya
Sayadaw says his main source is Jinālaṅkāraṭīkā. According to Ven Anandajoti:
Jinālaṅkāra (Buddharakkhita; 12th c.). This poem of 278 verses gives an account of the Buddha’s life up until his enlightenment
I assume Jinālaṅkāraṭīkā is a commentary to it. So, it's quite late.
chownah
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Re: Eighty Minor Marks in Pāli literature

Post by chownah »

Dhammanando wrote: Wed May 13, 2020 1:04 pm Here's the Milinda-ṭīkā's list, which seems to be in a different order from the sayadaw's.

Dhammatthavinicchaya
From this reference the buddha proceeds like an elephant, a lion, a goose, and a bull. I think that this would make for a very strange gate.....or are these each seperate gates and if so do they correspond to walk, trot, canter, and gallop?
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Re: Eighty Minor Marks in Pāli literature

Post by Dhammanando »

chownah wrote: Wed May 13, 2020 2:10 pmFrom this reference the buddha proceeds like an elephant, a lion, a goose, and a bull. I think that this would make for a very strange gate.....or are these each seperate gates and if so do they correspond to walk, trot, canter, and gallop?

If the terms meant that a Buddha proceeded in exactly the manner of these four animals, the gait wouldn't be strange; it would be impossible, for the locomotion of two bipeds – a Buddha and a goose – can hardly be expected to bear much resemblance to that of three quadrupeds. Presumably what it means, however, is that his manner of proceeding was in certain respects like that of each of these animals.

For example, he may have raised his leg high in the manner of a goose, presented an unstoppable mien like that of an elephant, flexed his shoulders with the confidence of a lion, and stamped his foot down firmly like a bull.
“Keep to your own pastures, bhikkhus, walk in the haunts where your fathers roamed.
If ye thus walk in them, Māra will find no lodgement, Māra will find no foothold.”
— Cakkavattisīhanāda Sutta
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Dhammanando
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Re: Eighty Minor Marks in Pāli literature

Post by Dhammanando »

Volo wrote: Wed May 13, 2020 1:28 pm Sayadaw says his main source is Jinālaṅkāraṭīkā.
This is also what the Milindaṭīkā author gives as his source.

The asīti anubyañjanāni are referred to in the commentaries to the Brahmajāla and Dhātuvibhaṅga suttas but the earliest extant lists of them date from the later texts.
According to Ven Anandajoti:
"Jinālaṅkāra (Buddharakkhita; 12th c.). This poem of 278 verses gives an account of the Buddha’s life up until his enlightenment"
The authorship of this work and its ṭīkā seems to be something of a mystery. Malalasekera has a two-page discussion of it in his Pali Literature of Ceylon.

https://archive.org/details/ThePaliLite ... 5/mode/2up
“Keep to your own pastures, bhikkhus, walk in the haunts where your fathers roamed.
If ye thus walk in them, Māra will find no lodgement, Māra will find no foothold.”
— Cakkavattisīhanāda Sutta
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Re: Eighty Minor Marks in Pāli literature

Post by rhinoceroshorn »

Now I understand why Vakkali wanted to see Buddha's body. :tongue:
Foul body, yes... :lol:
Without resistance in all four directions,
content with whatever you get,
enduring troubles with no dismay,
wander alone
like a rhinoceros.
Sutta Nipāta 1.3 - Khaggavisana Sutta
Image
But if they hit you with a stick...?"
"...I will think, 'These people are very civilized, in that they don't hit me with a knife.'..."
"But if they hit you with a knife...?"
"...I will think, 'These people are very civilized, in that they don't take my life with a sharp knife.'..."
SN35.88
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Wizard in the Forest
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Re: Eighty Minor Marks in Pāli literature

Post by Wizard in the Forest »

Woah amazing, I got way more than I expected to have, thanks friends.
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