Cattaro Satipatthana = "The Four Arousings of Mindfulness." Four in relation to classes of objects of mindfulness.
Why did the Buddha teach just Four Arousings of Mindfulness and neither more nor less? By way of what was suitable for those capable of being trained.
In regard to the pair of the dull-witted and the keen-witted minds among tamable persons of the craving type and the theorizing type, pursuing the path of quietude [samatha] or that of insight [vipassana] in the practice of meditation, the following is stated: For the dull-witted man of craving type the Arousing of Mindfulness through the contemplation of the gross physical body is the Path to Purity; for the keen-witted of this type, the subtle subject of meditation on the feeling. And for the dull-witted man of the theorizing type the Path to Purity is the Arousing of Mindfulness through a subject not too full of distinctions, namely, consciousness [citta]; for the keen-witted of this type, the subject which teems with distinctions, namely the contemplation on things of the mind — mental objects [dhammanupassana].
For the dull-witted man, pursuing quietude, the First Arousing of Mindfulness, body-contemplation, is the Path to Purity, by reason of the feasibility of getting at the mental reflex; for the keen-witted of this type, because he does not continue to stay in the coarse, the second Arousing of Mindfulness, the contemplation on feeling, is the Path to Purity.
And for the dull-witted man pursuing the path of insight, the subject of meditation without many distinctions, the contemplation on consciousness, is the Path to Purity; and for the keen-witted of this type the contemplation on mental objects which is full of distinctions.
74. Now, as to the words, one that suits his temperament (§28): there are six kinds of
temperament, that is, greedy temperament, hating temperament, deluded
temperament, faithful temperament, intelligent temperament, and speculative
temperament. Some would have fourteen, taking these six single ones together
with the four made up of the three double combinations and one triple combination
with the greed triad and likewise with the faith triad. But if this classification is
admitted, there are many more kinds of temperament possible by combining greed,
etc., with faith, etc.; therefore the kinds of temperament should be understood
briefly as only six. As to meaning the temperaments are one, that is to say, personal
nature, idiosyncrasy. According to these there are only six types of persons,
that is, one of greedy temperament, one of hating temperament, one of deluded
temperament, one of faithful temperament, one of intelligent temperament, and
one of speculative temperament.
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