"Our study reveals that causality can be computed at an early level in the visual system," said Martin Rolfs, who conducted much of the research as a post-doctoral fellow in NYU's Department of Psychology. "This finding ends a long-standing debate over how some visual events are processed: we show that our eyes can quickly make assessments about cause-and-effect—without the help of our cognitive systems."
The finding, the researchers concluded, provides strong evidence that in some cases, the understanding of action – causality, animacy, and intention – is encoded on a perceptual level rather than on a cognitive one.
Casual discussion amongst spiritual friends.
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- "And how is it, bhikkhus, that by protecting oneself one protects others? By the pursuit, development, and cultivation of the four establishments of mindfulness. It is in such a way that by protecting oneself one protects others.
"And how is it, bhikkhus, that by protecting others one protects oneself? By patience, harmlessness, goodwill, and sympathy. It is in such a way that by protecting others one protects oneself.
- Sedaka Sutta [SN 47.19]