Pali Term: Anupassī

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Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Dmytro » Sun Jan 06, 2013 6:33 pm

Hello Pali friends,

The verb 'anupassati' refers to maintaining special modes of viewing, e.g.:


aniccato anupassati, no niccato

he views as impermanent, not as permanent

yo attano attānaṃ nānupassati

he who does not view the self by means of the self

vayaṃ cassānupassati

and he views its vanishing


In Satipatthana sutta, Sata sutta, and many other similar suttas, Buddha describes four special modes of viewing:


Sato bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno, ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. Kathañca bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti: idha bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Evaṃ kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti.

"And how is a monk mindful? There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — subduing greed & distress with reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings... mind... mental qualities in & of themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — subduing greed & distress with reference to the world. This is how a monk is mindful.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html


In these four special forms of viewing, one remains focused on a particular sphere (satipatthana) in & of itself, disregarding other spheres.


"Kayanupassi = "Contemplating the body." Possessed of the character of body-contemplation, or of observing the body.

Why is the word "body" used twice in the phrase: "Contemplating the body in the body?" For determining the object and isolating it, and for the sifting out thoroughly [vinibbhoga] of the apparently compact [ghana] nature of things like continuity [santati].

Because there is no contemplating of feeling, consciousness nor mental objects in the body, but just the contemplating of the body only, determination through isolation is set forth by the pointing out of the way of contemplating the body only in the property called the body."

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/auth ... l#synopsis


Similarly, one can be mindful to maintain some other skilful form of viewing:

Idha bhikkhave, ekacco puggalo sabbasaṅkhāresu aniccānupassī viharati aniccasaññī aniccapaṭisaṃvedī satataṃ samitaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ cetasā adhimuccamāno paññāya pariyogāhamāno. So āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati.

Here, bhikkhus, some person dwells contemplating impermanence in the eye, perceiving impermanence, experiencing impermanence, constantly, continuously, and uninterrpuptedly focusing on it with the mind, fathoming it with wisdom. With the destruction of taints, he has realized for himself with direct knowledge, in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by wisdom, and having entered upon it, dwells in it.
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Dmytro » Sun Jan 06, 2013 7:05 pm

Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi writes in the footnote to his translation to Anguttara Nikaya:

... kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. ...

...(402) dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed longing and dejection in regard to the world...

197. The Pāli phrase kāye kāyānupassī viharati is usually translated either as I have rendered it here or as "[he] dwells contemplating the body as a body." The question is sometimes raised which of these two is more accurate. I believe that 7:6,IV 13-15, supports my rendering here. We there read ekacco puggalo sabbasaṅkhāresu aniccānupassī viharati, and in the following suttas: sabbasaṅkhāresu dukkhānupassī viharati, sabbasaṅkhāresu anattānupassī viharati, and sabbasaṅkhāresu nibbāne sukhānupassī viharati. These are best rendered: "Some person dwells contemplating impermanence in all conditioned phenomena," "dwells contemplating suffering in all conditioned phenomena," "dwells contemplating non-self in all conditioned phenomena," and "dwells contemplating happiness in nibbāna." They could not be rendered: "Some person dwells contemplating impermanence as all conditioned phenomena" ... "contemplating happiness in nibbāna." In each case, teh word conjoined with anupassī is the aspect that is contemplated, and the word in the locative case is the sphere in relation to shich that aspect is contemplated. Analogously, in kāye kāyānupassī viharati, the kāya conjoined with anupassī is the aspect that is contemplated (the ''bodiness" of the body) and the locative kāye is the domain in relation to which that aspect is contemplated. Strictly speaking, kāyānupassī does not actually mean "contemplating the body," but a "body-contemplator." Thus a very literal translation of the phrase would be: "He dwells as a body-contemplator in relation to the body." Since such a rendering would sound awkward in English, I fall back on the familiar "contemplating the body in the body." Similar considerations apply to the other three satipaṭṭhānas.

Metta,
Dmytro
Last edited by Dmytro on Mon Jan 07, 2013 2:59 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Sylvester » Mon Jan 07, 2013 8:03 am

Thanks Dmytro.

Strictly speaking, kāyānupassī does not actually mean "contemplating the body," but a "body-contemplator." Thus a very literal translation of the phrase would be: "He dwells as a body-contemplator in relation to the body." Since such a rendering would sound awkward in English, I fall back on teh familiar "contemplating the body in the body." Similar considerations apply to the other three satipaṭṭhānas.


This is quite an oft-overlooked point, that anupassī is not functioning as a verb here, otherwise it requires that the aorist of anupassati be rendered into English. I actually like the awkward but literal rendition of anupassī into the adjective "as a contemplator", since it emphasizes the task at hand, ie to abide as a person with the very specific task of contemplating.

:anjali:
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby daverupa » Mon Jan 07, 2013 11:29 am

Strictly speaking, kāyānupassī does not actually mean "contemplating the body," but a "body-contemplator." Thus a very literal translation of the phrase would be: "He dwells as a body-contemplator in relation to the body." Since such a rendering would sound awkward in English, I fall back on teh familiar "contemplating the body in the body."


I think "the familiar" rendering is much more awkward than this literal option.
    "And how is it, bhikkhus, that by protecting oneself one protects others? By the pursuit, development, and cultivation of the four establishments of mindfulness. It is in such a way that by protecting oneself one protects others.

    "And how is it, bhikkhus, that by protecting others one protects oneself? By patience, harmlessness, goodwill, and sympathy. It is in such a way that by protecting others one protects oneself.
- Sedaka Sutta [SN 47.19]
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Dmytro » Tue Jan 08, 2013 4:05 pm

As Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu writes, anupassī here is a participle:

-anupassī nominative from anupassin. The suffix -in here is identical in form, but distinct from, the possessive suffix -in (seen, for instance, in ātāpī which follows on the next line, meaning having or possessing ardour), but carries the meaning of a present participle.
This distinction is noticeable in the texts (for another example cf. sabbakāyapaṭisaṁvedī in the Ānāpānapabbaṁ below), but I have been unable to find any reference to it in the Pāḷi Grammars; however, see Whitney SG § 1230, and the follow-up references given there. Its participle-nature is clearly shown by its entering into combination with the auxiliary viharati.
The prefix anu- in these contexts means continuously, or uninterruptedly (doing the action of the verb). For mindfulness to become strong it must be maintained continuously on whatever subject has been taken up.

http://www.buddhanet-de.net/ancient-bud ... /index.htm
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Sylvester » Wed Jan 09, 2013 1:14 pm

Thanks Dmytro. That was most helpful.

I note that CPD treats anupassi as an adjective. This does not seem to be the only such word where there is uncertainty over whether the adjectival function or the action connotation is meant. We also have those compounds terminating with -vasi, such as ara~nnavasi. Some render this as "dwelling in the forest" versus "forest-dweller". I have not checked the texts whether auxillary verbs are involved in those -vasi occurences.
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Dmytro » Wed Jan 09, 2013 2:37 pm

Hi Sylvester,

The Commentary clearly explains it as a participle:

Kāyānupassīti kāye anupassanasīlo kāyaṃ vā anupassamāno.
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Sylvester » Thu Jan 10, 2013 7:12 am

Thanks Dmytro.

It took me an enormous amount of time to guess that anupassamāno is the present participle passive of anupassati, presumably with the use of the -māna suffix. Could I trouble you explain the derivation of anupassanasīlo from anupassana? CPD simply parsed it as an adjective meaning "being in the habit of viewing, considering". Pali morphology was not something I invested enough time on, sadly.

Yes, I would agree that morphologically, this is explained as a present participle. I think the tricky bit here is whether this present participle is -

1. functioning as a verb per se (as is typically translated); or
2. functioning as an adjective (as suggested by BB).

Warder suggests that present participles too can function as "adjectives" and "qualify" nouns (p 47) but he encases the 2 words in quotation marks, suggesting that the function is adjectival-like or perhaps pseudo-adjectives.
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Dmytro » Thu Jan 10, 2013 9:14 am

Hi Sylvester,

Sylvester wrote:Could I trouble you explain the derivation of anupassanasīlo from anupassana? CPD simply parsed it as an adjective meaning "being in the habit of viewing, considering". Pali morphology was not something I invested enough time on, sadly.


anupassana + sīla

Yes, I would agree that morphologically, this is explained as a present participle. I think the tricky bit here is whether this present participle is -

1. functioning as a verb per se (as is typically translated); or
2. functioning as an adjective (as suggested by BB).


Participles always function as adjectives in Pali (as well in Ukrainian in Russian). It's just that there's no exact equivalent of such a participle in English, so it often has to be translated otehrwise.

Warder suggests that present participles too can function as "adjectives" and "qualify" nouns (p 47) but he encases the 2 words in quotation marks, suggesting that the function is adjectival-like or perhaps pseudo-adjectives.


Well, participles are not adjectives, strictly speaking.
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Sylvester » Thu Jan 10, 2013 9:36 am

Dmytro wrote:anupassana + sīla


What?! Nothing more exotic than a genitive tappurisa? Won't that make this simply a noun? I suppose there must be adjectival nouns in Pali as well. Anyway, I was hoping you would explain how anupassanasīlo would be a participle.

Many thanks.
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Dmytro » Thu Jan 10, 2013 9:51 am

Sylvester wrote:Won't that make this simply a noun? I suppose there must be adjectival nouns in Pali as well.


Oftentimes there are adjectives like "sīlo" formed in such a way from nouns, especially in the later literature.
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Sylvester » Thu Jan 10, 2013 10:28 am

That explains it. Thanks.
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Dmytro » Thu Jan 10, 2013 4:00 pm

My good friend from Russia provided me with an early definition from Vibhanga:

357. Anupassīti. Tattha katamā anupassanā? Yā paññā pajānanā…pe… amoho dhammavicayo sammādiṭṭhi – ayaṃ vuccati ‘‘anupassanā’’. Imāya anupassanāya upeto hoti samupeto upāgato samupāgato upapanno sampanno samannāgato. Tena vuccati ‘‘anupassī’’ti.
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby kirk5a » Thu Jan 10, 2013 4:24 pm

Dmytro wrote:Why is the word "body" used twice in the phrase: "Contemplating the body in the body?"

Because otherwise it is observed via perceiving. Just as MN1 draws out the distinctions between "perceives" (sanjanati), "conceives" (mannati) and "directly knows" (abhijanati). The wording here is pointing to that.
"When one thing is practiced & pursued, ignorance is abandoned, clear knowing arises, the conceit 'I am' is abandoned, latent tendencies are uprooted, fetters are abandoned. Which one thing? Mindfulness immersed in the body." -AN 1.230
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Dmytro » Sun Jan 13, 2013 10:24 am

Dmytro wrote:My good friend from Russia provided me with an early definition from Vibhanga:

357. Anupassīti. Tattha katamā anupassanā? Yā paññā pajānanā…pe… amoho dhammavicayo sammādiṭṭhi – ayaṃ vuccati ‘‘anupassanā’’. Imāya anupassanāya upeto hoti samupeto upāgato samupāgato upapanno sampanno samannāgato. Tena vuccati ‘‘anupassī’’ti.


My friend argues that this grammatical form denotes endowment with a quality, and cites Mahāassapura sutta with the grammatically similar "sampajānakārī":

‘‘Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṃ karaṇīyaṃ? ‘Satisampajaññena samannāgatā bhavissāma, abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī, asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī, uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī’ti, evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ.

"And what more is to be done? We will be possessed of mindfulness & alertness. When going forward and returning, we will act with alertness. When looking toward and looking away... when bending and extending our limbs... when carrying our outer cloak, upper robe, & bowl... when eating, drinking, chewing, & tasting... when urinating & defecating... when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, & remaining silent, we will act with alertness': That's how you should train yourselves.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Dmytro » Wed Jan 16, 2013 5:14 pm

My Russian friend continues to amaze me. This time he has found an explanation of this grammatical form in the Niruttidīpanī grammar by Ven. Ledi Sayadaw, chapter related to habitual (sīla), repeated (abhikkhañña) and certain to occur (avassaka) actions (794. Sīlābhikkhaññāvassakesu ṇī).

Some of the examples given in this chapter:

Akkhāyatīti akkhāyī, akkhāyanasīlo, akkhāyanadhammo, akkhāne sakkaccakāritā yuttoti attho. Kālattayepi sijjhati sāmaññavidhānattā.

Avassakaṃ pana anāgatameva, dhammakkhāyī-puriso, dhammakkhāyinī-itthī, dhammakkhāyi-kulaṃ, gītaṃ abhiṇhaṃ gāyatīti gītagāyī, kappaṃ avassaṃ ṭhāssatīti kappaṭṭhāyī, saṃvaṭṭamānaṃ asaṅkhyeyyaṃ ṭhāssatīti saṃvaṭṭaṭṭhāyī. Evaṃ vivaṭṭaṭṭhāyī.

Adinnaṃ ādadāti sīlenāti adinnādāyī. Tathā dinnameva ādadātīti dinnādāyī, annaṃ dadāti sīlenāti annadāyī.

- Niddāyanasīlo niddāyī - dormouse
- majjaṃ pivanasīlo majjapāyī - drunkard
- sīghaṃ yāyanasīlo sīghayāyī - "fast-walker"
- sasaṅkhārena sappayogena avassaṃ parinibbāyissatīti sasaṅkhāraparinibbāyī - one who will reach Nibbana in exactly this way (sasaṅkhārena sappayogena)

- Byāpanasīlo byāpī,
- kāmeti icchati sīlenāti kāmī,
- dhammakāmī, atthakāmī,
- karaṇasīlo kārī, pāpakārī, puññakārī.

Avassaṃ āgamissatīti āgāmī.
- sakiṃ avassaṃ āgamissatīti sakadāgāmī.
- Tathā na āgamissatīti anāgāmī.

- dhammaṃ carati sīlenāti dhammacārī
- brahmaṃ seṭṭhaṃ carati sīlenāti brahmacārī.
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Re: Pali Term: Anupassī

Postby Sylvester » Thu Jan 17, 2013 2:31 pm

Heavy duty stuff. Thank you.

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