Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

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Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby mikenz66 » Tue Sep 25, 2012 9:44 am

Ud 4.5 PTS: Ud 41
Naga Sutta: The Bull Elephant
translated from the Pali by John D. Ireland


The Buddha moves from a crowded, noisy part of the forest to a more secluded one.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .irel.html

Thus have I heard. At one time the Lord was staying near Kosambi at the Ghosita monastery. At that time the Lord was living hemmed in by bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, by male and female lay followers, by kings and royal ministers, by sectarian teachers and their disciples, and he lived in discomfort and not at ease. Then the Lord thought: "At present I am living hemmed in by bhikkhus and bhikkhunis... by sectarian teachers and their disciples, and I live in discomfort and not at ease. [1] Suppose I were to live alone, secluded from the crowd?"

Then the Lord, having put on his robe in the forenoon and taken his bowl and outer cloak, entered Kosambi for almsfood. Having walked for almsfood in Kosambi and returned after the meal, he set his lodging in order by himself, took his bowl and cloak, and without informing his attendant or taking leave of the Order of bhikkhus, he set off alone, without a companion, for Parileyyaka. Walking on tour by stages, he arrived at Parileyyaka and stayed near Parileyyaka in a protected forest at the foot of an auspicious sal-tree.

Now a certain bull elephant was living hemmed in by elephants and she-elephants, by elephant calves and sucklings; he ate grass with the tips pulled off and they ate the branches he had broken down. He drank muddied water and on going down and coming out of the water he was jostled by she-elephants; and he lived in discomfort and not at ease. Then that bull elephant thought: "At present I am living hemmed in by elephants and she-elephants, by elephant calves and sucklings; I eat grass with the tips pulled off and they eat the branches which I break down. I drink muddied water and on going down and coming out of the water I am jostled by she-elephants; and I live in discomfort and not at ease. Suppose I were to live alone, secluded from the crowd?"

So that bull elephant left the herd and went to Parileyyaka, to the protected forest, and approached the Lord at the foot of the auspicious sal-tree. On reaching the place where the Lord was staying that bull elephant kept the place free of grass and brought water with his trunk for the Lord's use.

Then, while the Lord was in solitude and seclusion, this thought arose in his mind: "Formerly I was living hemmed in by bhikkhus and bhikkhunis... and I was living in discomfort and not at ease. But now I live not hemmed in by bhikkhus and bhikkhunis... in comfort and at ease." And also this thought arose in that bull elephant's mind: "Formerly I was living hemmed in by elephants and she-elephants... and I was living in discomfort and not at ease, but now I live not hemmed in by elephants and she-elephants... I eat unbroken grass and (others) do not eat the branches which I break down. I drink clear water and on going down and coming out of the water I am not jostled by she-elephants, and I live in comfort and at ease."

Then the Lord, on observing his own solitude, understood with his mind the thought in the mind of that bull elephant, and uttered on that occasion this inspired utterance:

    This unites mind with mind,
    The perfected one and the bull elephant [2]
    With tusks as long as chariot-poles:
    That each delights in being alone in the forest.

Notes

[1] Commentary explains that the Buddha was living surrounded by these eight assemblies, not out of gegariousness, but out of compassion, because he desired their welfare, in accordance with his vow to liberate others and rescue them from the floods.

[2] Nagassa nagena. The "perfected one" or arahant and the bull-elephant, as well as the serpent deity, are all termed naga.
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby mikenz66 » Tue Sep 25, 2012 9:46 am

Ud 4.5 PTS: Ud 41
Nāga Sutta: The Bull Elephant
translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu


http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Kosambī at Kosita's monastery. And on that occasion the Blessed One lived hemmed in with monks, nuns, male & female lay followers, kings, royal ministers, sectarians, & their disciples. Hemmed in, he lived unpleasantly and not in ease. The thought occurred to him: "I now live hemmed in by monks, nuns, male & female lay followers, kings, royal ministers, sectarians, & their disciples. Hemmed in, I live unpleasantly and not in ease. What if I were to live alone, apart from the crowd?"

So, early in the morning, the Blessed One adjusted his under robe and — carrying his bowl & robes — went into Kosambī for alms. Then, having gone for alms in Kosambī, after the meal, returning from his alms round, he set his own lodgings in order and, carrying his bowl & robes, without telling his attendant, without informing the community of monks — alone & without a companion — left on a wandering tour toward Palileyyaka. After wandering by stages, he reached Palileyyaka. There he stayed in Palileyyaka in the protected forest grove at the root of the auspicious sal tree.

It so happened that a certain bull elephant was living hemmed in by elephants, cow-elephants, calf-elephants, & baby elephants. He fed off grass with cut-off tips. They chewed up his stash of broken-off branches. He drank disturbed water. And when he came up from his bathing-place, cow-elephants went along, banging up against his body. Hemmed in, he lived unpleasantly and not in ease. The thought occurred to him: "I now live hemmed in by elephants, cow-elephants, calf-elephants, & baby elephants. I feed off grass with cut-off tips. They chew up my stash of broken-off branches. I drink disturbed water. And when I come up from my bathing place, cow-elephants go along, banging up against my body. Hemmed in, I live unpleasantly and not in ease. What if I were to live alone, apart from the crowd?"

So the bull elephant, leaving the herd, went to Palileyyaka, to the protected forest grove and the root of the auspicious sal tree — to where the Blessed One was staying. There he kept the grass down in the area where the Blessed One was staying, and brought drinking water and washing water for the Blessed One with his trunk.

Then, when the Blessed One was alone in seclusion, this train of thought appeared to his awareness: "Before, I lived hemmed in by monks, nuns, male & female lay followers, kings, royal ministers, sectarians, & their disciples. Hemmed in, I lived unpleasantly and not in ease. But now I live not hemmed in by monks, nuns, male & female lay followers, kings, royal ministers, sectarians, & their disciples. Not hemmed in, I live pleasantly and in ease."

And this train of thought appeared to the awareness of the bull elephant, "Before, I lived hemmed in by elephants, cow-elephants, calf-elephants, & baby elephants. I fed off grass with cut-off tips. They chewed up my stash of broken-off branches. I drank disturbed water. And when I came up from my bathing place, cow-elephants went along, banging up against my body. Hemmed in, I lived unpleasantly and not in ease. But now I live not hemmed in by elephants, cow-elephants, calf-elephants, & baby elephants. I feed off grass with uncut tips. They don't chew up my stash of broken-off branches. I drink undisturbed water. When I come up from my bathing place, cow-elephants don't go along, banging up against my body. Not hemmed in, I live pleasantly and in ease."[1]

Then the Blessed One, realizing his own seclusion and knowing the train of thought in the bull elephant's awareness, on that occasion exclaimed:

    This harmonizes mind with mind —
    the great one's with the great one's[2] —
    the elephant with tusks like chariot poles: that each finds joy,
    alone, in the forest.


Note

1. Mv.X.4.6-7 places the story of the elephant's service to the Buddha in the context of the quarrel at Kosambī, but the details of how the Buddha left Kosambī given in Mv.X.3 are different.

2. Great one = nāga. This term can mean magical serpent or large elephant, and is often used as an epithet for an arahant.

See also: AN 9.40. http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby Hanzze » Tue Sep 25, 2012 10:42 am

Maybe a little side-topic but in regard of "nāga. This term can mean magical serpent or large elephant, and is often used as an epithet for an arahant." I had searched to find more information about the meaning (it was about the sutta in regard of the four great families of Naga) as it has somehow a mystical appearence. Do anybody know more about it?
Just that! *smile*
...We Buddhists must find the courage to leave our temples and enter the temples of human experience, temples that are filled with suffering. If we listen to Buddha, Christ, or Gandhi, we can do nothing else. The refugee camps, the prisons, the ghettos, and the battlefields will become our temples. We have so much work to do. ... Peace is Possible! Step by Step. - Samtach Preah Maha Ghosananda "Step by Step" http://www.ghosananda.org/bio_book.html

BUT! it is important to become a real Buddhist first. Like Punna did: Punna Sutta Nate sante baram sokham _()_
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby mikenz66 » Tue Sep 25, 2012 10:51 am

http://thailandlandofsmiles.com/2009/08 ... -thailand/
viewtopic.php?f=27&t=13977#p206521
Nak is Thai for Naga... Hence Wat Nak Prok - Wat Protective Naga (or something like that...).

:anjali:
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby mikenz66 » Tue Sep 25, 2012 10:58 am

And see this Sutta:
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .irel.html
At that time the Lord sat cross-legged for seven days experiencing the bliss of liberation. Now it happened that there occurred, out of season, a great rainstorm and for seven days there were rain clouds, cold winds, and unsettled weather. Then Mucalinda the naga-king left his dwelling place and having encircled the Lord's body seven times with his coils, he stood with his great hood spread over the Lord's head (thinking) to protect the Lord from cold and heat, from gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, sun, and the touch of creeping things.


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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby Hanzze » Tue Sep 25, 2012 11:41 am

Thanks alot for your effort, I thought on more deeper explainings/meanings. Like for example:

from Vipers "Monks, I have made this simile to convey a meaning. Here the meaning is this: 'The four vipers of utmost heat & horrible venom' stands for the four great existents: the earth property, the liquid property, the fire-property, & the wind property.


Maybe also found in the meaning or the names of the four naga king families: "Virupakkha, Erapatha, Chabyaputta, and Kanhagotamaka" or the garudas which could be also a part of the naga family (thought on naga = big powerful animals, well known that they are often mentioned as the enemies of the nagas): "Great-Power-Virtue Garuda-King, Great-Body Garuda-King, Great-Fulfillment Garuda-King, and Free-At-Will Garuda-King"

But I guess that leads to much side-topic. But I think the word naga transports a little more we might not understand easy.
Just that! *smile*
...We Buddhists must find the courage to leave our temples and enter the temples of human experience, temples that are filled with suffering. If we listen to Buddha, Christ, or Gandhi, we can do nothing else. The refugee camps, the prisons, the ghettos, and the battlefields will become our temples. We have so much work to do. ... Peace is Possible! Step by Step. - Samtach Preah Maha Ghosananda "Step by Step" http://www.ghosananda.org/bio_book.html

BUT! it is important to become a real Buddhist first. Like Punna did: Punna Sutta Nate sante baram sokham _()_
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby Sam Vara » Tue Sep 25, 2012 12:41 pm

Two inconsequential thoughts.

I love Thanissaro's phrase

They chew up my stash of broken-off branches.
.

So West Coast.

Second, I have little experience with the beasts and this particular one was clearly something special, but how thirsty would you have to be in order to delight in water that had been carried in an elephant's trunk?!
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby gavesako » Tue Sep 25, 2012 7:54 pm

The Parileyyaka elephant (also spelt Palaleya, etc.) has been singled out for his meritorious actions as a bodhisatta who will become of the future Buddhas:

In the future (ten) Bodhisattas will attain full awakening
in the following order: the most honourable (Ariya) Metteyya,
(King) Rama, (King) Pasenadi of Kosala, (the Deva) Abhibhu,
(the Asura Deva) Dighasoni, (the Brahman) Candani, (the young
man) Subha, the Brahman Todeyya, (the elephant) Nalagiri,
and (the elephant) Palaleya.

http://www.budsas.org/ebud/metteya/arimet01.htm
Bhikkhu Gavesako
Kiṃkusalagavesī anuttaraṃ santivarapadaṃ pariyesamāno... (MN 26)

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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby Hanzze » Wed Sep 26, 2012 3:10 am

1. Mv.X.4.6-7 places the story of the elephant's service to the Buddha in the context of the quarrel at Kosambī, but the details of how the Buddha left Kosambī given in Mv.X.3 are different.


Is there more information about the actuall reason, if there is a need of a reason to teach such a lesson? I guess the introduction "The Buddha moves from a crowded, noisy part of the forest to a more secluded one." is not so the case.
Just that! *smile*
...We Buddhists must find the courage to leave our temples and enter the temples of human experience, temples that are filled with suffering. If we listen to Buddha, Christ, or Gandhi, we can do nothing else. The refugee camps, the prisons, the ghettos, and the battlefields will become our temples. We have so much work to do. ... Peace is Possible! Step by Step. - Samtach Preah Maha Ghosananda "Step by Step" http://www.ghosananda.org/bio_book.html

BUT! it is important to become a real Buddhist first. Like Punna did: Punna Sutta Nate sante baram sokham _()_
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby Mal » Sat Sep 29, 2012 12:27 pm

mikenz66 wrote: "At present I am living hemmed in by bhikkhus and bhikkhunis... by sectarian teachers and their disciples, and I live in discomfort and not at ease. Suppose I were to live alone, secluded from the crowd?"


How can the Buddha be in discomfort and not at ease? As a fully enlightened being shouldn't he always be at ease?
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby Hanzze » Sat Sep 29, 2012 12:30 pm

Would you as full awakened being hit your finger with a hammer constanly or live in a mud hole? So why not change the place if this would not make sense?

There is a kind of similar message in the Yasa Sutta: Honor but there are also suttas where the Buddha thought to return (mostly after request) out of compassion and for the safty from new monks (just dont remember the name)
Just that! *smile*
...We Buddhists must find the courage to leave our temples and enter the temples of human experience, temples that are filled with suffering. If we listen to Buddha, Christ, or Gandhi, we can do nothing else. The refugee camps, the prisons, the ghettos, and the battlefields will become our temples. We have so much work to do. ... Peace is Possible! Step by Step. - Samtach Preah Maha Ghosananda "Step by Step" http://www.ghosananda.org/bio_book.html

BUT! it is important to become a real Buddhist first. Like Punna did: Punna Sutta Nate sante baram sokham _()_
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby Mal » Sat Sep 29, 2012 3:04 pm

Hanzze wrote:Would you as full awakened being hit your finger with a hammer constanly or live in a mud hole? So why not change the place if this would not make sense?


Surely it wouldn't make any difference to the Buddha'? Surely he has an unlimited capacity to "let go", so the discomfort of the mud and hammer blows would immediately dissipate, would be as nothing. So why not stay in the mud hole hitting oneself with the hammer?

Maybe he thought all those people were disturbing each other! By moving away he could more easily help the unenlightened, one by one, even a seriously bad case like the bull elephant.

This reading would require the change of one word "he -> they" in the key sentence: "At that time the Lord was living hemmed in by bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, by male and female lay followers, by kings and royal ministers, by sectarian teachers and their disciples, and *they* lived in discomfort and not at ease."
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby mikenz66 » Sat Sep 29, 2012 7:29 pm

Hi Mal,
Mal wrote:How can the Buddha be in discomfort and not at ease? As a fully enlightened being shouldn't he always be at ease?

Yes, that's an interesting thing about suttas like this, and others that describe painful physical feelings that the Buddha experienced, such as a sore back. What exactly is it that the Buddha does not experience?

:anjali:
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby Hanzze » Sun Sep 30, 2012 2:17 am

Mal wrote:
Hanzze wrote:Would you as full awakened being hit your finger with a hammer constanly or live in a mud hole? So why not change the place if this would not make sense?


Surely it wouldn't make any difference to the Buddha'? Surely he has an unlimited capacity to "let go", so the discomfort of the mud and hammer blows would immediately dissipate, would be as nothing. So why not stay in the mud hole hitting oneself with the hammer?

Maybe he thought all those people were disturbing each other! By moving away he could more easily help the unenlightened, one by one, even a seriously bad case like the bull elephant.

This reading would require the change of one word "he -> they" in the key sentence: "At that time the Lord was living hemmed in by bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, by male and female lay followers, by kings and royal ministers, by sectarian teachers and their disciples, and *they* lived in discomfort and not at ease."


"So why not stay in the mud hole hitting oneself with the hammer?" The body for example is not something lasting as well as the physical health. In regard of thinking to use the capacity as well as possbile, one would not carless missuse his lasting rescourses. The other point is also, that one does not increase his reputation which is needed to touch people who are able to be helped.

"Maybe he thought all those people were disturbing each other!" I don't think so but of cause he might have seen the situation which makes it useless to stay and waste time and energy. The sutta "honor" I posted you before, might help you to understand.

It's also needed to understand what compassion and metta really means. Its does not mean to be there for everybody all the time. Maybe this will help you to understand this views, which of course seems to be very incompassionated and selfish in our habtitaly way of thinking: Metta means goodwill (there is a lot of misunderstanding amoung broadcasted teachings).

One more thing is, that there is a general believe that one could help others unconditioned. So a kind of Buddha the magical liberator which is conected with our traditional way of thinking that it is possible to hepl others) It is not possible to even provide helpfull thinks to others when they are not open to it. So useless to put further effort in it and waste what one has left (at leat time).
Just that! *smile*
...We Buddhists must find the courage to leave our temples and enter the temples of human experience, temples that are filled with suffering. If we listen to Buddha, Christ, or Gandhi, we can do nothing else. The refugee camps, the prisons, the ghettos, and the battlefields will become our temples. We have so much work to do. ... Peace is Possible! Step by Step. - Samtach Preah Maha Ghosananda "Step by Step" http://www.ghosananda.org/bio_book.html

BUT! it is important to become a real Buddhist first. Like Punna did: Punna Sutta Nate sante baram sokham _()_
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby Sam Vara » Sun Sep 30, 2012 10:41 am

mikenz66 wrote:Hi Mal,
Mal wrote:How can the Buddha be in discomfort and not at ease? As a fully enlightened being shouldn't he always be at ease?

Yes, that's an interesting thing about suttas like this, and others that describe painful physical feelings that the Buddha experienced, such as a sore back. What exactly is it that the Buddha does not experience?

:anjali:
Mike


Hi Mike,

I assume that what the Buddha does not experience is the sore back as a problem, as something wrong. This then raises the question as to what he was doing taking steps (as per the sutta) to move away from or diminish the pain. But that question is underpinned by our assumption that such moving away or alleviation of pain are problematic. For the Buddha, neither the pain, nor the natural attempts to alleviate it, are the foundation for an existential crisis. (With me, however, they certainly can be!) Ultimately, this might come down to one of the imponderables; we are attempting to fathom aspects of what Buddhas are, when it is not really necessary.
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby Mal » Sun Sep 30, 2012 1:43 pm

I think bringing in the back pain example doesn't help the discussion of this sutta - the discomfort in this sutta is *purely* mental.

Some argue that the Buddha suffered physical pain but was not disturbed by it. This is not the case here, the Buddha is feeling discomfort through a simple social & psychological situation - surely he should be above that!

Maybe the Buddha is not *feeling* discomfort, but "the Buddha felt discomfort" is shorthand for "the Buddha saw that the conditions were not conducive to teaching"?
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby daverupa » Sun Sep 30, 2012 4:57 pm

Mal wrote:a simple social & psychological situation - surely he should be above that!


We can bring in a few other examples for contemplation:

SN 6.1 wrote:"This Dhamma that I have attained is deep, hard to see, hard to realize... And if I were to teach the Dhamma and if others would not understand me, that would be tiresome for me, troublesome for me."


but especially this one, as it has a simile:

MN 75 wrote:"Magandiya, it's just as if there were a man blind from birth who couldn't see black objects... white... blue... yellow... red... the sun or the moon. His friends, companions, & relatives would take him to a doctor. The doctor would concoct medicine for him, but in spite of the medicine his eyesight would not appear or grow clear. What do you think, Magandiya? Would that doctor have nothing but his share of weariness & disappointment?"

"Yes, master Gotama."

"In the same way, Magandiya, if I were to teach you the Dhamma — 'This is that freedom from disease; this is that Unbinding' — and you on your part did not know freedom from disease or see Unbinding, that would be wearisome for me; that would be troublesome for me."


This is something that was an issue before the Buddha even began teaching, but if this confuses one I think that one likely either misunderstands karuna, or misunderstands nibbana.
    "And how is it, bhikkhus, that by protecting oneself one protects others? By the pursuit, development, and cultivation of the four establishments of mindfulness. It is in such a way that by protecting oneself one protects others.

    "And how is it, bhikkhus, that by protecting others one protects oneself? By patience, harmlessness, goodwill, and sympathy. It is in such a way that by protecting others one protects oneself.
- Sedaka Sutta [SN 47.19]
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby mikenz66 » Sun Sep 30, 2012 7:26 pm

Thanks Sam and Dave for the comments. I particularly likes Sam's comment:
For the Buddha, neither the pain, nor the natural attempts to alleviate it, are the foundation for an existential crisis. (With me, however, they certainly can be!).


Mal: I mentioned physical pain because the Buddha seldom made a distinction between he mind door and pain at the other five sense doors. "Mental" in this sutta, can "feeling of pain" not be at the mind door? Which, of course, begs the question of what is meant by "mental" here:
The Blessed One said, "When touched with a feeling of pain, the uninstructed run-of-the-mill person sorrows, grieves, & laments, beats his breast, becomes distraught. So he feels two pains, physical & mental. Just as if they were to shoot a man with an arrow and, right afterward, were to shoot him with another one, so that he would feel the pains of two arrows; in the same way, when touched with a feeling of pain, the uninstructed run-of-the-mill person sorrows, grieves, & laments, beats his breast, becomes distraught. So he feels two pains, physical & mental.
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .html#shot


As Dave points out, there are some explicit cases in the suttas of the Buddha having painful feelings that are not explicitly physical.

:anjali:
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby equilibrium » Mon Oct 01, 2012 9:46 am

The story of "The Bull Elephant" is to illustrate the point of having the "right conditions, the effects will follow".

Notice the blessed one is among a group of people while the bull elephant is among a group of other elephants, the story is similar but have different meanings.

The blessed one being within a group of people does not provide the necessary "right conditions" for the blessed one to prosper. While the bull elephant being among the group does not have the best of what is available.

The story then changes as the blessed one moves away from the group, therefore having the "right conditions" while the bull elephant doing the same seperated from the group.

Then the blessed one being alone and becomes aware of his changed environment, from a group to alone, which provides the right conditions for one to see oneself the difference between a group and alone....."Not hemmed in, I live pleasantly and in ease"

The same process happed to the bull elephant as the bull elephant is aware of the difference between being within a group and being alone and the benefits that comes with being alone....."Not hemmed in, I live pleasantly and in ease".....also uncut grass, undisturbed water etc.

Then towards the end when the blessed one "realized his own seclusion and knowing the train thought in the bull elephant's awareness".....meaning when you know oneself, you will know others.....yet they are both at joy!

Without the right conditions one cannot progress!.....like an apple seed cannot sprout if the ground conditions are not right!

On the subject of the two pains: physical and mental pain.
The blessed one only has one pain that being the physical pain as he is still within the body, the mental pain does not exist as he understands in the mind-consciousness that it is empty.....while the run-of-the-mill person has the two pains being physical and mind, both consciousness.
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Re: Ud 4.5 Nāga Sutta — The Bull Elephant

Postby Mal » Mon Oct 01, 2012 12:35 pm

equilibrium wrote:The blessed one being within a group of people does not provide the necessary "right conditions" for the blessed one to prosper.


What do you mean by "to prosper"? Do you mean "to get more comfortable" or "to teach more effectively"?

equilibrium wrote:Then the blessed one being alone and becomes aware of his changed environment, from a group to alone, which provides the right conditions for one to see oneself the difference between a group and alone....."Not hemmed in, I live pleasantly and in ease"


Doesn't the Buddha always live pleasantly and at ease? You actually say this:

equilibrium wrote:... the mental pain does not exist ...


So there is a contradiction here.
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