SN 12.2, Translated by John Irelandhttp://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/auth ... passage-17
"Now what, bhikkhus, is aging-and-death?
"That which, for these and those beings, in this and that group of beings, is aging, becoming old, decayed-ness, graying of the hair, wrinkling of the skin, drawing to an end of the life-span, failing of the sense-faculties: this is called aging.
"That which, for these and those beings, in this and that group of beings, is passing away, breaking up, disappearance, mortality and dying, making an end, the separation of the aggregates, the casting away of the body: this is called death. This is aging and this is death and these, bhikkhus, are called aging-and-death.
"And what, bhikkhus, is birth?
"That which, for these and those beings, in this and that group of beings, is birth, being born, conception, reproduction, the appearing of the aggregates, the acquiring of the [sense] bases: this, bhikkhus, is called birth.
"And what, bhikkhus, is becoming?
"There are these three becomings: sensuous [-realm] becoming, form [-realm] becoming and formless [-realm] becoming. This, bhikkhus, is called becoming.
"And what, bhikkhus, is grasping?
"There are these four grasping: grasping at sense objects, grasping at [wrong] views, grasping at rituals and observances and grasping at a soul-theory. This, bhikkhus, is called grasping.
"And what, bhikkhus, is craving?
"There are these six groups of craving: craving for visible objects, sounds, scents, tastes, tangible objects, and objects of mind. This, bhikkhus is called craving.
"And what, bhikkhus, is feeling?
"There are these six groups of feeling born of eye-contact and mind-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, bodily-contact and mind-contact. This, bhikkhus, is called feeling.
"And what, bhikkhus, is contact?
"There are these six groups of contact: eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, bodily-contact and mind-contact. This, bhikkhus, is called contact.
"And what, bhikkhus, is the sixfold sense-field?
"Eye-base, ear-base, nose-base, tongue-base, tactile-base and mind-base. This, bhikkhus, is called the sixfold sense-field.
"And what, bhikkhus, is mind-and-body?
"Feeling, perception, volition, contact and attention: this is called mind. The four great elements and the material form assumed by the four great elements: this is called mind-and-body.
"And what, bhikkhus, is consciousness?
"There are these six groups of consciousness: eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness and mind-consciousness. This, bhikkhus, is called consciousness.
"And what, bhikkhus, are volitional activities?
"There are these three volitional activities: a volitional activity of body, a volitional activity of speech, a volitional activity of mind. These, bhikkhus, are called volitional activities.
"And what, bhikkhus, is ignorance?
"Whatever is absence of knowledge into suffering, the origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering and the way leading to cessation of suffering. This, bhikkhus, is called ignorance."Notes
31. The word "becoming" is used for the Paali bhava, rather than "being" or "existence." The latter words are too static to bring out the meaning which is essentially dynamic. Perhaps "evolving" might be better. It is the unfolding of the effects of past actions (kamma) and the production of new actions. In Buddhism the universe is classified into three realms: (a) the sensuous realm comprising the hells, the animal, ghost, and human worlds and six heavenly or deva worlds; (b) the form realm, a subtler kind of existence enjoyed by the Brahma-gods; and (c) the formless realm, the beings of which do not have material bodies.
32. Siilabbata, an outward show of ritualism and religious observances, such as ritual bathing, fasting, etc., thinking they will bring purity and release of themselves.
33. Attavaada: belief in an eternal and unchanging ego-entity, either included in or independent of mind and body.
34. AAyatana, sphere of sense, basis for sensation. There are twelve aayatana altogether: the five sense organs, their respective objects, and the mind, which is regarded as a sense-organ, its object being ideas or thoughts.
35. The four great elements or qualities of matter are:
the earth-element, solidity, extension in space;
the water-element, cohesion, building matter into mass;
the fire-element, temperature either hot or cold, maturing;
the air-element, motion, vibration.
36. "Volitional activity" is an interpretative rather than a literal translation of the word sa.nkhaara, an important technical term in Buddhist literature. The word means: formation, construction, determinant; either in the active sense of forming or putting together, or passively as what has been formed, put together or compounded. In this context the first meaning in the sense of active, kammic volitions, is intended.
37. Knowledge (ñaa.na) is the understanding arising from training in meditation. It refers specifically to the knowledge gained on entering one of the stages of sanctity: stream-entry, once-returning, never-returning and arahatta or final emancipation.