Right concentration is dependent on the development of the preceding 7 path factors:
"Now what, monks, is noble right concentration with its supports and requisite conditions? Any singleness of mind equipped with these seven factors — right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right mindfulness — is called noble right concentration with its supports and requisite conditions." —Maha-cattarisaka Sutta
Before we strive for samadhi and jhana, we should first cultivate step by step the following:
Learning the true dhamma/reflective acceptance of the dhamma while having admirable teachers/friends/companions/comrades
→ Right view/understanding [right view of the law of karma to start the mundane path and right view of the 4NT to start the supramundane/Noble path → Faith (saddhā)]
→ Right intention [non-craving, non-greed; non-ill will, non-malice, non-harming, non-hostility; non-ignorance, non-delusion (no wrong views)]
→ Right attention (yoniso manasikara) [distinguish what’s right attention and what’s wrong attention, arouse/develop right attention and avoid/abandon wrong attention; distinguish what’s wholesome/beneficial and what’s unwholesome/unbeneficial (not only to myself but also to others), and do so before/during/after mental/verbal/ bodily conducts. Only yoniso manasikara can lead to the abandonment of defilements / purification of mind and right speech/conduct/livelihood.]
→ Right speech [no deliberate, deceitful false / malicious / harsh / pointless / hurried / untimely / extolling or disparaging ... -- no un-wholesome/un-beneficial speech]
→ Right conduct [mental conduct & bodily conduct: no killing / stealing /sexual misconduct ...]
→ Right livelihood [wholesome, beneficial livelihood; contentment]
After being be of moral habit, live controlled by the control of the Obligations, endowed with right behavior and livelihood, seeing danger in the slightest fault and diligently undertaking the training rules [善护其身]:
→ Right effort
[Sense restraint, keep the mind centered inside (e.g. on the breath), not reacting with craving or aversion to sensory objects, 少欲、 少事、少务; in particular moderation in eating;
Being wakeful -- watching and cleaning the obstructive mental states - 5 hindrances;
Full awareness and clear comprehension (not be absent-minded, careless/heedless; clearly comprehend what to do, why do it, what's the consequence, how to do it, ..., not acting out of ignorance/negligence/habits]. [However, this training represented the factor of right mindfulness in some suttas like MN 27, which might be taught before the Satipatthana sutta and Anapanasati sutta].
After having possessed the three foundations of the noble path:
1) The noble aggregate of virtues: being of moral habit, live controlled by the control of the Obligations, endowed with right behavior and livelihood, seeing danger in the slightest fault and diligently undertaking the training rules,
2) Sense restraint, and being able to Keep the mind centered inside (on the breath) constantly.
3) Full awareness and clear comprehension.
善护其身, 守诸根门, 善系心住; 若比丘身身观念住，念住已系 念住不忘，尔时方便修念觉分:
The practice right mindfulness:
→ Right mindfulness [of body/feeling/mind/the Dhamma (including the 4NT)] -- start with Satipatthana to establish the 4 foundations of mindfulness and then practice Anapanasatti while or after practicing the overcoming of 5 hindrances:
[1) Start with mindfulness of breathing until no detectable in/out breath at the nostrils and finally no bodily fabrication: 繫意鼻頭, 觉知一切身行(入息、出息; experience the bodily fabrications - in and out breathing), 觉知一切身行休息[experience the stilling of bodily fabrications], 系念乃至息灭; 息從心出/入: 若息從心出亦復知從心出。若息從心入亦復知從心入。
2) Then practice mindfulness of feeling until no mental fabrications: while being aware of breathing experience bodily feeling (piti), experience mental feeling (sukha), experience mental fabrication, experience the stilling of mental fabrication;
3) Then practice mindfulness of mind: while being aware of breathing 心觉知 [experience mind states -- see Satipatthana ；心悦 [gladden the mind by e.g. 6 recollections and experience Joy(pāmojja)],心定 [now stay steady and attentive to a single object with one-pointed fixed focus, and experience the composed mind],心解脱觉知 [experience the liberation of mind from the 5 hindrances];
4) Then practice mindfulness of the Dhamma: while being aware of breathing contemplate anicca, dispassion, cessation, and nibbana [观无常，断，无欲，灭.]
→ Investigation, analysis and contemplation of the Dhamma (dhamma-vicaya):
1st Noble truth: 5 clinging aggregates (and 6 sense sets / 4 elements / 5 hindrances);
2nd Noble truth: dependent origination
3rd Noble truth: nibbana
4th Noble truth: 10-fold Noble path / 7 enlightenment factors / 3 characteristics
→ Unshakable faith
修择法觉分已，择法觉分满 足。于法选择、分别、思量已，得精勤方便，尔时方便修习精进觉分 (viriya):
→ Ardency/energetic effort to remove 5 hindrances (viriya) [to strive to practice in accordance with the true teachings (during daily practice), and clearly distinguishing between wholesome/unwholesome mental states to suppress 5 hindrances; to be ardent on keeping the mind on the meditation object (during meditation)]
→ Overcoming of the five hindrances [getting rid of covetousness for the world, dwells with a mind devoid of covetousness, he cleanses the mind of covetousness. Getting rid of the taint of ill-will, he dwells benevolent in mind; compassionate and merciful towards all creatures and beings, he cleanses the mind of ill-will. Getting rid of sloth and torpor, he dwells without sloth or torpor; perceiving the light, fully aware and clearly comprehending he cleanses the mind of sloth and torpor. Getting rid of restlessness and worry, he dwells calmly; the mind inward tranquil, he cleanses the mind of restlessness and worry. Getting rid of doubt, he dwells doubt-crossed; unperplexed as to the states that are skilled, he cleanses his mind of doubt].
When being ardent, mindful and clearly comprehending the meditation object during meditation to have the hindrances suppressed.
→ Six recollections to gain pāmojja and piti.
[However, in some suttas like MN125, overcoming 5 hindrances is practiced before the 4 establishments of mindfulness but after full awareness and clear comprehension].
→ Joy(pāmojja); 喜 觉分满足。
欢喜已，身、心猗息 [tranquility]，尔时方便修猗觉分 (Sukha):
→ Rapture (pīti);
→ Tranquility (passaddhi) → Pleasure (sukha)
身心乐已，得三昧 (gain samadhi)，尔时修定觉分 (jhanas):
→ Right samādhi [the 4 jhanas]
Metta to all,
Last edited by starter
on Wed Feb 29, 2012 11:31 pm, edited 4 times in total.