Pali Term: Satipaṭṭhāna

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Pali Term: Satipaṭṭhāna

Postby Dmytro » Fri Sep 17, 2010 8:37 pm

Hello Pali friends,

First of all, I would like to share an excerpt from an interview with Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi -

BB: Any language, I have found, has an underlying conceptual scheme built into it by the metaphors that govern its vocabulary and by the connotations and nuances of its words. Thus in translating from one language into another, one is always faced with the problem of dissonance between their two underlying conceptual schemes. This leads to conflicts that often can only be resolved by sacrificing important conceptual connections in the original language for the sake of elegance or intelligibility in the target language. This problem becomes all the more acute when one is translating from an ancient language utilizing a somewhat archaic set of conceptual metaphors into a modern language pertaining to a very different culture.

We can see this problem in some of the simplest Pali words. For instance, the word samadhi can be translated as “concentration, composure, collectedness, mental unification, etc.,” but none of these renderings convey the idea that samadhi denotes a specific meditative state, or set of meditative states, in the Buddhist (and broader Indian) system of spiritual cultivation. Even the word sati, rendered mindfulness, isn’t unproblematic. The word derives from a verb, sarati, meaning “to remember,” and occasionally in Pali sati is still explained in a way that connects it with the idea of memory. But when it is used in relation to meditation practice, we have no word in English that precisely captures what it refers to. An early translator cleverly drew upon the word mindfulness, which is not even in my dictionary. This has served its role admirably, but it does not preserve the connection with memory, sometimes needed to make sense of a passage.

Satipatthana is often translated “foundation of mindfulness,” which sounds elegant; but if one knows Pali one might suspect that the compound represents not sati + patthana (which gives us “foundation of mindfulness”), but sati + upatthana, “establishment of mindfulness” (the u dropping off through union of vowels). Then, if one knows the texts in the original, one will have encountered a number of phrases that pair sati with words related to upatthana, such as upatthitassati, “one with mindfulness established,” but no other phrases that pair it with forms related to patthana. And this would confirm the case for “establishment of mindfulness” over “foundation of mindfulness.” However more graceful the latter might sound, the accent is on the internal process of setting mindfulness up rather than on the object to which it applies.

http://www.inquiringmind.com/Articles/Translator.html

There's no word 'paṭṭhāna' in early texts, it first appears in later literature, in title of the 7th book of the Abhidhamma, also called Mahāpakaraṇa.

One of the phrases which pair sati with word related to upaṭṭhāna is well-known:

'parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā' - 'having established remembrance near the mouth'.

Patisambhidamagga describes all four satipaṭṭhānas:

Kāyo upaṭṭhānaṃ, no sati; sati upaṭṭhānañceva sati ca. Tāya satiyā tena ñāṇena taṃ kāyaṃ anupassati. Tena vuccati – ‘‘kāye kāyānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānabhāvanā’’ti.

Vedanā upaṭṭhānaṃ, no sati; sati upaṭṭhānañceva sati ca. Tāya satiyā tena ñāṇena taṃ vedanaṃ anupassati. Tena vuccati – ‘‘vedanāsu vedanānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānabhāvanā’’ti.

Cittaṃ upaṭṭhānaṃ, no sati; sati upaṭṭhānañceva sati ca. Tāya satiyā tena ñāṇena taṃ cittaṃ anupassati. Tena vuccati – ‘‘citte cittānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānabhāvanā’’ti.

Dhammā upaṭṭhānaṃ, no sati; sati upaṭṭhānañceva sati ca. Tāya satiyā tena ñāṇena te dhamme anupassati. Tena vuccati – ‘‘dhammesu dhammānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānabhāvanā’’ti.

In relation with Anapanasati, the Commentary notes:

Pakatiassāsapakatipassāse nissāya uppannanimittampi assāsapassāsāti nāmaṃ labhati. Upaṭṭhānaṃ satīti taṃ ārammaṇaṃ upecca tiṭṭhatīti sati upaṭṭhānaṃ nāma.

'Sati upaṭṭhāna' means that 'sati', having approached, stays on that basis of concentration (ārammaṇa) (i.e. the perceptual image (nimitta) which has arisen due to natural in-and-out-breath).

Patisambhidamagga-Atthakatha 2.509

Therefore, the compound satipaṭṭhāna consists of two words, 'sati' and 'upaṭṭhāna', which can be translated as '(way of) establishing remembrance'.

Metta,
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Re: Pali Term: Satipaṭṭhāna

Postby Dmytro » Fri Sep 17, 2010 8:44 pm

See also:

Pali Term: Sati - viewtopic.php?f=23&t=4299


Thanissaro Bhikkhu - Introduction to the translation of Satipatthana sutta

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html
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Re: Pali Term: Satipaṭṭhāna

Postby Dmytro » Sat Sep 18, 2010 10:13 am

Hello Pali friends,

The famous Satipatthana sutta explains one aspect of practice - the ways of establishing remembrance (sati). Bhikkhunupassaya sutta, from Satipatthana Samyutta, gives a real-life description, which incorporates multiple aspects - indicators to be observed, efforts to be applied, etc. Here's a text of this sutta with the translation by Bhikkhu Bodhi (who translates 'nimitta' as 'sign'):


Yo hi koci, ānanda, bhikkhu vā bhikkhunī vā catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu suppatiṭṭhitacitto viharati, tassetaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ – ‘uḷāraṃ pubbenāparaṃ visesaṃ sañjānissati’’’.

It may be expected of anyone, Ananda—whether bhikkhu or bhikkhuni—who dwells with a mind well established in the four establishments of mindfulness, that such a one will perceive successively loftier stages of distinction.

‘‘Katamesu catūsu? Idhānanda, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Tassa kāye kāyānupassino viharato kāyārammaṇo vā uppajjati kāyasmiṃ pariḷāho, cetaso vā līnattaṃ, bahiddhā vā cittaṃ vikkhipati.

"What four? Here, Ananda, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. While he is contemplating the body in the body, there arises in him, based on the body, either a fever in the body or sluggishness of mind, or the mind is distracted outwardly.

Tenānanda, bhikkhunā kismiñcideva pasādanīye nimitte cittaṃ paṇidahitabbaṃ. Tassa kismiñcideva pasādanīye nimitte cittaṃ paṇidahato pāmojjaṃ jāyati. Pamuditassa pīti jāyati.

That bhikkhu should then direct his mind towards some inspiring sign [nimitta]. When he directs his mind towards some inspiring sign, gladness is born. When he is gladdened, rapture is born.

Pītimanassa kāyo passambhati. Passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vedayati. Sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati. So iti paṭisañcikkhati – ‘yassa khvāhaṃ atthāya cittaṃ paṇidahiṃ, so me attho abhinipphanno. Handa, dāni paṭisaṃharāmī’ti. So paṭisaṃharati ceva na ca vitakketi na ca vicāreti. ‘Avitakkomhi avicāro, ajjhattaṃ satimā sukhamasmī’ti pajānāti’’.

When the mind is uplifted by rapture, the body becomes tranquil. One tranquil in body experiences happiness. The mind of one who is happy becomes concentrated. He reflects thus: 'The purpose for the sake of which I directed my mind has been achieved. Let me now withdraw it.' So he withdraws the mind and does not think or examine. He understands: 'Without thought and examination, internally mindful, I am happy.'

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, bhikkhu vedanāsu…pe… citte…pe… dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Tassa dhammesu dhammānupassino viharato dhammārammaṇo vā uppajjati kāyasmiṃ pariḷāho, cetaso vā līnattaṃ, bahiddhā vā cittaṃ vikkhipati. Tenānanda, bhikkhunā kismiñcideva pasādanīye nimitte cittaṃ paṇidahitabbaṃ. Tassa kismiñcideva pasādanīye nimitte cittaṃ paṇidahato pāmojjaṃ jāyati. Pamuditassa pīti jāyati. Pītimanassa kāyo passambhati. Passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vedayati. Sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati. So iti paṭisañcikkhati – ‘yassa khvāhaṃ atthāya cittaṃ paṇidahiṃ, so me attho abhinipphanno. Handa, dāni paṭisaṃharāmī’ti. So paṭisaṃharati ceva na ca vitakketi na ca vicāreti. ‘Avitakkomhi avicāro, ajjhattaṃ satimā sukhamasmī’ti pajānāti.

"Again, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating feelings in feelings ... mind in mind ... phenomena in phenomena, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. While he is contemplating phenomena in phenomena, there arises in him, based on phenomena, either a fever in the body or sluggishness of mind, or the mind is distracted outwardly. That bhikkhu should then direct his mind towards some inspiring sign. When he directs his mind towards some inspiring sign ... He understands: 'Without thought and examination, internally mindful, I am happy.'

Evaṃ kho, ānanda, paṇidhāya bhāvanā hoti.

"It is in such a way, Ananda, that there is development by direction.

‘‘Kathañcānanda, appaṇidhāya bhāvanā hoti? Bahiddhā, ānanda, bhikkhu cittaṃ appaṇidhāya ‘appaṇihitaṃ me bahiddhā citta’nti pajānāti. Atha pacchāpure ‘asaṃkhittaṃ vimuttaṃ appaṇihita’nti pajānāti. Atha ca pana ‘kāye kāyānupassī viharāmi ātāpī sampajāno satimā sukhamasmī’ti pajānāti.

"And how, Ananda, is there development without direction?
Not directing his mind outwardly, a bhikkhu understands:
'My mind is not directed outwardly.' Then he understands:
'It is unconstricted after and before, liberated, undirected.'149 Then he further understands: I dwell contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful; I am happy.'

Bahiddhā, ānanda, bhikkhu cittaṃ appaṇidhāya ‘appaṇihitaṃ me bahiddhā citta’nti pajānāti. Atha pacchāpure ‘asaṃkhittaṃ vimuttaṃ appaṇihita’nti pajānāti. Atha ca pana ‘vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharāmi ātāpī sampajāno satimā sukhamasmī’ti pajānāti.

"Not directing his mind outwardly, a bhikkhu understands:
'My mind is not directed outwardly.' Then he understands:
'It is unconstricted after and before, liberated, undirected.' Then he further understands:
'I dwell contemplating feelings in feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful; I am happy.'

Bahiddhā, ānanda, bhikkhu cittaṃ appaṇidhāya ‘appaṇihitaṃ me bahiddhā citta’nti pajānāti. Atha pacchāpure ‘asaṃkhittaṃ vimuttaṃ appaṇihita’nti pajānāti. Atha ca pana ‘citte cittānupassī viharāmi ātāpī sampajāno satimā sukhamasmī’ti pajānāti.

"Not directing his mind outwardly, a bhikkhu understands:
'My mind is not directed outwardly.' Then he understands:
'It is unconstricted after and before, liberated, undirected.' Then he further understands:
'I dwell contemplating mind in mind, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful; I am happy.'

Bahiddhā, ānanda, bhikkhu cittaṃ appaṇidhāya ‘appaṇihitaṃ me bahiddhā citta’nti pajānāti. Atha pacchāpure ‘asaṃkhittaṃ vimuttaṃ appaṇihita’nti pajānāti. Atha ca pana ‘dhammesu dhammānupassī viharāmi ātāpī sampajāno satimā sukhamasmī’ti pajānāti.

"Not directing his mind outwardly, a bhikkhu understands:
'My mind is not directed outwardly.' Then he understands:
'It is unconstricted after and before, liberated, undirected.' Then he further understands:
'I dwell contemplating phenomena in phenomena, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful; I am happy.'

Evaṃ kho, ānanda, appaṇidhāya bhāvanā hoti.

"It is in this way, Ananda, that there is development without direction.
Last edited by Dmytro on Sun Sep 16, 2012 4:21 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Pali Term: Satipaṭṭhāna

Postby Dmytro » Sat Sep 18, 2010 11:33 am

Let's analyze the Bhikkhunupassaya sutta in detail, to see the four ways of establishing remembrance (satipaṭṭhāna) in work.

Here the meditator, discerning skilful and unskilful qualities (dhamma-vicaya), makes note of such unskilful qualities:

- bodily excitation (kāyasmiṃ pariḷāho) or tension (the absence of passaddhi) - (body as the first way of establishing remembrance);

- the absence of non-carnal pīti and sukha - (feelings as the second way of establishing remembrance);

- sluggishness of will (cetaso līnattaṃ), distraction of mind outward (bahiddhā cittaṃ vikkhipati), constricted state of mind (saṃkhitta citta) - (mind as a third way of establishing remembrance);

After the discrimination of mental qualities (dhamma-vicaya), meditator develops the next factor of Awakening, vīriya (effort), and as described in the extended explanation of four right efforts, the essential instrument here is the (re)direction of attention from inappropriate perceptual images (nimitta) to appropriate ones:

Saṃvarasuttaṃ

14. ‘‘Cattārimāni, bhikkhave, padhānāni. Katamāni cattāri? Saṃvarappadhānaṃ, pahānappadhānaṃ, bhāvanāppadhānaṃ, anurakkhaṇāppadhānaṃ. Katamañca, bhikkhave, saṃvarappadhānaṃ? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā na nimittaggāhī hoti nānubyañjanaggāhī. Yatvādhikaraṇamenaṃ cakkhundriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ, tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjati, rakkhati cakkhundriyaṃ, cakkhundriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjati. Sotena saddaṃ sutvā… ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā… jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā… kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā… manasā dhammaṃ viññāya na nimittaggāhī hoti nānubyañjanaggāhī, yatvādhikaraṇamenaṃ manindriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ, tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjati, rakkhati manindriyaṃ, manindriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjati. Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, saṃvarappadhānaṃ.

...

‘‘Katamañca, bhikkhave, anurakkhaṇāppadhānaṃ? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu uppannaṃ bhaddakaṃ samādhinimittaṃ anurakkhati aṭṭhikasaññaṃ puḷavakasaññaṃ vinīlakasaññaṃ vicchiddakasaññaṃ uddhumātakasaññaṃ. Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, anurakkhaṇāppadhānaṃ. Imāni kho, bhikkhave, cattāri padhānānī’’ti.

Anguttara Nikaya 2.16


As described in Titthiya sutta, the key prerequisite of unskilful qualities in unfundamental attention (ayoniso manasikara). And according to Samudaya sutta, mental qualities arise and cease, conditioned by attention:

Manasikārasamudayā dhammānaṃ samudayo; manasikāranirodhā dhammānaṃ atthaṅgamo’’ti.

Samyutta Nikaya 5.184


So, as described in Bhikkhunupassaya sutta, the meditator redirects his attention, with such two options:

- to redirect his attention to the inspiring perceptual image (pasādanīye nimitte) - the ways of redirecting attention are dealt with in more detail in Ahara sutta;

- or to make the mind altogether undirected (appaṇihita). This resonates with making the mind not supported by anything (anissita) from the refrain of Satipatthana sutta (Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati), and refers to the advanced stage of practice.

Having applied the efforts of redirecting attention, he makes note of the skilful mental qualities by such indicators:

- bodily relaxation (passaddhakāyo) - (body as the first way of establishing remembrance);

- pleasant non-carnal feelings (pāmojjaṃ jāyati ... pīti jāyati ... sukhaṃ vedayati; sukhamasmi) - (feelings as the second way of establishing remembrance);

- spaciousness and freedom of mind (asaṃkhittaṃ vimuttaṃ appaṇihitaṃ) - (mind as the third way of establishing remembrance);

Tracing the conditioned arising and cessation of mental qualities, with attention as the key prerequisite, is the practice of the fourth way of establishing remembrance.


So Bhikkhunupassaya sutta allows us to reconstruct the Satipatthana, as it was practiced during the Buddha's lifetime.

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Re: Pali Term: Satipaṭṭhāna

Postby Dmytro » Mon Oct 18, 2010 6:59 am

Ole Holten Pind writes:

The monk contemplates the body as body, not in the body, which would lead to
absurd conclusions. The locative has this particular function in this and
many other cases.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/11207
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Re: Pali Term: Satipaṭṭhāna

Postby Dmytro » Tue Apr 02, 2013 7:32 am

Salayatana-vibhanga sutta tells about another three satipaṭṭhānā:

'Tayo satipaṭṭhānā yadariyo sevati, yadariyo sevamāno satthā gaṇamanusāsitumarahati'ti iti kho panetaṃ vuttaṃ. Kiñcetaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ:

"'There are three frames of reference that a noble one cultivates, cultivating which he is a teacher fit to instruct a group': thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said?

idha bhikkhave, satthā sāvakānaṃ dhammaṃ deseti anukampako hitesī anukampaṃ upādāya: 'idaṃ vo hitāya idaṃ vo sukhāyā'ti. Tassa sāvakā na sussūsanti. Na sotaṃ odahanti. Na aññā cittaṃ upaṭṭhapenti. Vokkamma ca satthusāsanaṃ vattanti. Tatra bhikkhave, tathāgato na ceva attamato hoti. Na ca attamanataṃ paṭisaṃvedeti. Anavassuto ca viharati sato sampajāno. Idaṃ bhikkhave, paṭhamaṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ, yadariyo sevati, yadariyo sevamāno satthā gaṇamanusāsitumarahati.

"There is the case where the Teacher — out of sympathy, seeking their well-being — teaches the Dhamma to his disciples: 'This is for your well-being, this is for your happiness.' His disciples do not listen or lend ear or apply their minds to gnosis. Turning aside, they stray from the Teacher's message. In this case the Tathagata is not satisfied nor is he sensitive to satisfaction, yet he remains untroubled, mindful, & alert. This is the first frame of reference that a noble one cultivates, cultivating which he is a teacher fit to instruct a group.

Puna ca paraṃ bhikkhave, satthā sāvakānaṃ dhammaṃ deseti anukampako hitesī anukampaṃ upādāya: 'idaṃ vo hitāya, idaṃ vo sukhāyā'ti. Tassa ekacce sāvākā na sussūsanti, na sotaṃ odahanti, na aññā cittaṃ upaṭṭhapenti. Vokkamma ca satthusāsanaṃ vattanti. Ekacce sāvakā sussūsanti. Sotaṃ odahanti aññā cittaṃ upaṭṭhapenti. Na ca vokkamma satthusāsanaṃ vattanti. Tatra bhikkhave, tathāgato na ceva attamato hoti, na ca attamanataṃ paṭisaṃvedeti. Na ca anattamano hoti. Na ca anattamanataṃ paṭisaṃvedeti. Attamanatañca anattamanatañca1 tadūbhayaṃ abhinivajjetvā so upekkhako viharati sato sampajāno. Idaṃ vuccati bhikkhave, dutiyaṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ yadariyo sevati, yadariyo sevamāno satthā gaṇamanusāsitumarahati.

"Furthermore, there is the case where the Teacher — out of sympathy, seeking their well-being — teaches the Dhamma to his disciples: 'This is for your well-being, this is for your happiness.' Some of his disciples do not listen or lend ear or apply their minds to gnosis. Turning aside, they stray from the Teacher's message. But some of his disciples listen, lend ear, & apply their minds to gnosis. They do not turn aside or stray from the Teacher's message. In this case the Tathagata is not satisfied nor is he sensitive to satisfaction; at the same time he is not dissatisfied nor is he sensitive to dissatisfaction. Free from both satisfaction & dissatisfaction, he remains equanimous, mindful, & alert. This is the second frame of reference...

Puna ca paraṃ bhikkhave, satthā sāvakānaṃ dhammaṃ deseti anukampako hitesī anukampaṃ upādāya: 'idaṃ vo hitāya, idaṃ vo sukhāyā'ti tassa sāvakā sussūsanti, sotaṃ odahanti, aññā cittaṃ upaṭṭhapenti, na ca vokkamma satthusāsanaṃ vattanti. Tatra bhikkhave, tathāgato attamano ceva hoti, attamanatañca paṭisaṃvedeti. Anavassuto ca viharati sato sampajāno. Idaṃ vuccati bhikkhave, tatiyaṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ yadariyo sevati yadariyo sevamāno satthā gaṇamanusāsitumarahati.

"Furthermore, there is the case where the Teacher — out of sympathy, seeking their well-being — teaches the Dhamma to his disciples: 'This is for your well-being, this is for your happiness.' His disciples listen, lend ear, & apply their minds to gnosis. They do not turn aside or stray from the Teacher's message. In this case the Tathagata is satisfied and is sensitive to satisfaction, yet he remains untroubled, mindful, & alert. This is the third frame of reference that a noble one cultivates, cultivating which he is a teacher fit to instruct a group.

Tayo satipaṭṭhānā yadariyo sevati, yadariyo sevamāno satthā gaṇamanusāsitumarahatīti iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ idametaṃ, paṭicca vuttaṃ.

"'There are three frames of reference that a noble one cultivates, cultivating which he is a teacher fit to instruct a group': thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html
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