Discussion of Abhidhamma and related Commentaries
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Abhidhamma View : Requisites of Enlightenment(3)
[Presented by Dr.Tep Sastri @ SariputtaDhamma/JTN/Mult] CMA VII, p. 281-282:
There are seven factors of enlightenment: the enlightenment factors of 1. mindfulness, 2. investigation of states, 3. energy, 4. zest, 5. tranquillity, 6. concentration, 7. equanimity.
Among the seven factors of enlightenment, investigation of states(dhammavicaya) is a designation for wisdom(pa~n~naa), insight into mental and material phenomena as they really are. Tranquiliity(passaddhi) means tranquillity both of consciousness and of the mental body(kaaya = collection of associated cetasikas: 'body' in the sense of aggregation). Equanimity(upekkhaa) here means mental neutrality(tatramajjhattata), one of the universal beautiful cetasikas, not neutral feeling. The three factors of investigation, energy, and zest are opposed to mental sluggishness; the three factors of tranquillity, concentration, and equanimity counteract mental excitation. Mindfulness assures that the two groups occur in balance, neither exceeding the other.There are eight path factors: 1. right view, 2. right intention, 3. right speech, 4. right action, 5. right livelihood, 6. right effort, 7. right mindfulness, 8. right concentration. Of the eight factors of the path, right view (sammaadi.t.thi) is the cetasika of wisdom exercised in understanding the Four Noble Truths. Right intention(sammaasankappa) is the cetasika of initial application(vitakka) directed towards renunciation, good will, and harmlessness. Path factors 3-5 are identical with the three abstinences (explained below). Right effort is the same as the four supreme efforts. Right concentration is defined in terms of the four jhaanas of the Suttanta system. Right mindfulness is the same as the four foundations of mindfulness. Right concentration is defined in terms of the four jhaanas of the Suttanta system.CMA II, p.88-89: The abstinences(viratis) are the three beautiful mental factors which are responsible for the deliberate abstinence from wrong conduct by way of speech, action, and livelihood. In mundane consciousness the viratis are operative only on an occasion when one intentionally refrains from a wrong mode of conduct for which an opportunity has arisen. When a person refrains from evil deeds without an opportunity for their performance arising, this is not a case of virati but of pure moral conduct (siila).
The commentators distinguish three types of virati: 1. natural abstinence; 2. abstinence by undertaking precepts; and 3. abstinence by eradication. An example of the first kind of virati is refraining from theft out of concern that one's reputation would be hurt if one is caught. Abstinence by undertaking precepts is the abstinence from evil deeds because one has undertaken to observe precepts. The third kind is the abstinence associated with the supramundane path consciousness, which arises eradicating the dispositions towards evil deeds. Whereas the previous two viratis are mundane, this one is supramundane.
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